- Bravo France home of entrepreneur, Danone-Hec-Yunus et millennials sont Charlie

Breaking News Spring 2015 IN which trillion dollar markets can france and grameeHEC free purpose of Muhammad Yunus and Sustainability Millennials?

........................................With Italy and Spain, France leads what goodwill Europeans spread with Catholic Culture- and Pope Francis is very clear how anti-youth (and errant) macroeconomics and the EU has come. Markets that are not audit around Preferential Option Poorest are not sustainable- nor are politicians who fail to value their main regulatory purpose as ending inequality.Whats stopping the miillennials generation in France leading national and global debates on this rather than waiting for rowing politicians who are never entrepreneurially ahead  of sustainability's intergenerational exponentials. After all French enlightenment coined the word entrepreneur- because what entrepreneurs value most is almost exactly the opposite of the politician. We trust that is as embedded in the french version of these words as it is obvious to your auld ally the scots  Can we link YOUTH DIARIES OF SOCIAL BUSINESS 2005-2015 & #2030now

PARIS calling Millennials www
Nutrition and all food value
 chains security - grameen partnerships with danone and credit agricole could have linkedin worldwide millennials interested in celebrating these markets sustainability

.....................................................Water. Waste, Energy - Veolia and Schneider Partnerships couid have led worldwide millennials transformations of these markets

 the UN has called 2015 and the transformation form millennial goals the biggest in its history - and paris hosts at least 2 seminar 2015 events:
septembers convergences 2015
december UN climate sustainability summit

Furthermore Paris' main branch of the UN is :UNESCO; /juːˈnɛsk/) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN). Its purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights Does UNESCO see 2015 in same way as UN-the year of facilitating biggest change in its existence. The Ted Turner family (who made their money mediating with CNN) ave invested over a billion dollars in making UK partnering wings more accessible to millennials turning impossible to possible. Their final review of the success of this takes place in Atlanta November 2015 with tens of thousands of youth and over 20 Nobel peace laureates. Will French millennials be well represented  
............................................................................Changing every anti-youth economic (job destroying) policy of European Union- 

How the most vital university missing curriculum needed to be the opposite of the MBA .
HECk  Isnt it time that all entrepreneurs united collaboratively  in asking what are we teaching wrongly about innovation that the net generation needed to mediate differently from the industrial age if sustainability let alone end poverty were to be real goals not greenwashing

 .............................................................................................................................................................................................Developing investment funding in most sustainable future purpose of each of these and other trillion dollar markets?

At we ask youth to compare which future capitals are twinning most with millennials sustainable futures- back in 2005 France/Paris launched a world lead on this with Youth and Yunus -where is it today?

Lets assume starting with 2005 meetings with Yunus at HEC - you agree that France was way ahead in inviting joyful millennials debate on one or all of the above critical markets purposes -over time what caused the impact to be less than it could have been? 

Are there urgent and mobilising ways empowering 1 millennials to get back to lead these social business orbits? 



welcome to  - a research project sponsired by family of The Economist's pro-youth economist Norman Macrae;

with 10000 youth we started this tv web in 2005 to understand from 20 interviews with yunus and inside grameen bank:

how to share massive youth job creation and women empowerment around the planet -coming soon The GG World Record Book of Job Creation

  • grameenitaly.JPG

 Dear we used to think of yunus millennials and italy : in terms of nobel peace summits 1 2 and how The Pope and Muslims action, learn, and open sourc poverty ending networks with each othere but since #2015now we hope you are happy to be merged with grameenfrance we will be inviting rest of grameeneurope to union in similar mode what would you like to be a yunus alumni of? which are top 10 curricula to make as nearly free to school as possible if race to poverty museum is to be united with youth by 2030? http://worldcitizen.tv


Breaking News Chinese new year of goat- Déjà plus de 10 000 inscrits ! A vous de jouer !


in 2011 annual general meeting of danone we circulated 400 first issues of journal of social business at same time as 300 issues circulated by results to congress


at 2010 general meeting of danone borje and I spent day at hec with faivre tavignot and dalsace we were told about the reality of the 2005 lunch where brainstorming facilitated by emmanuel faber and faivre-tavignot


 emerged global social business idea  around yunus, riboud and ceos of credit agricole and veolia, and sarkozi's top economics researchers and france's most famous of public servant of the poorest


- the french ad intended this to be mother of all collaboratoin benchmarking between sustainable corporations as well as their prototype public find for social business and a way of engaging the eu which at that time had a frenchman in charge of banking reforms wo was later to try to speak at convergences2012 as well as host eu social business summit 3 days after queen sofia microcreditsummit


not just a yunus jamboree- they were therefore upset when yunus university partnerships were linked with lowest universities across usa and europe something they could not explain to their colleagues as being a basis for developing one leading smba course something sarkozi actually made a pillar of his economic strategy which e tried to colaunch with stiglitz review of everything that had gone wrong wit macroeconomics april 2008 


in nov 2008 glasgow university adam smith scholars proposed rewriting smith and yunus and got backing of principal of glasgow university only to find yunus decided to chase a chancellorship with one of the lowest ranked glaswegian university - this didnt help make the change economic and big banking argument that needed to be got through to obama and clinton early 2008 -the subject of my fathers last writings for and with yunus- and as for scottish youth they lost independence from europe all thanks to not listening to people like tom huntre and gordon brown and prince charles who had been loudest supports of yunus The PM and Muhammad Yunus - creating a world without poverty


as for what ans did next to destroy europes youth and yunus- i will leave that to history


chris macrae  usa hotline 240 316 8157

 Envie d'avoir un impact social positif dans la société? Proposé par Ticket For Change et HEC Paris, ce cours en ligne totalement gratuit vous accompagne pendant 7 semaines pour vous apprendre comment passer de l'envie à l'idée puis de l'idée à l'action.

Combinant des contenus académiques issus de l'expertise des enseignants d'HEC et des témoignages concrets de pionniers tels que Muhammad Yunus, Emmanuel Faber ou encore Pierre Rabhi, ce MOOC a pour ambition de vous permettre de trouver votre voie d'acteur de changement.

Déjà plus de 10 000 inscrits ! A vous de jouer !


 ow Millennials race to end poverty and sustainability = race to free top 10 missing curricula of sustainability - but which are they?


OPEN Learning...


Green Energy....

Community Health Training...


Joy of Peace- Uni of Stars.

charliesangels.JPG .


Charlie Angels 

Mobile women4empowerment infrastructure leapfroging - 10 times lower cost mobile partners for poor in 1996 -what's #2015now ...Feed and water the future for everyone.......

....Yunus Angels


banking for jobs..............

Bernardo do you know anyone at Sapienza University in Rome


My dream in next 4 weeks - host a meeting in Rome between Sapienza and Nobal Peace Laureate Summit orgnanisers

Agree that Sapienza starts a On-Demand Mooc with those Nobel Peace Laureates who have something they want millennials to know how to action


On-demand MOOCs have these advantages - they are there 24/7; they are valued for what actions or collaborative goodwill they viralise not one standardised personal certificate; they can be assembled piecewise and iteratively. This would allow Nobel Laureate summit secretariat in Rome to be continuously responsible for impact on millennials of nobel peace laureates and someone from Vatican to keep an eye on how this may blend with Pope Francis goals


Since Jim Kim at world bank wants millennials to be most connected , educated, collaborative our race has ever nurtured e has already had one mutual exchange with Pope Fracis so Sapienza and World Bank who are already registered as Coursera providers could help maximise impacts on public servants accountability and transparency


Also I guess that the 5 billion person elearning satellite would be happy to freely advertise what nobel laureates sub-curriculum are already showing 


At some stage we can then try and match nobel laureates with which social business or global social value cases they like best from your partnering universities - and in cases where a Nobel laureate is passed like Mandela or Wangari Maathai presumably a small specialist editorial board (eg mandela elders in case of mandela) could be invited to help


If we could start doing this now we could then ask the additional hosts of Atlanta in Nov 2015 like the billion dollar investment by ted turner family in transformational partners of UN to get involved or those who today most typify turning luther king dreams into actions


cheers chris


of course there are also some particular cases your university circle might now be checking with HEC  and  . the idea of global social business partnering have emerged in 2005 from the dreams of Benedicte Faivre-Tavignot cootrdinator of sustainability curricula at HEC and Emmanuel Faber director of sustianability and i believe number 2 to Franck Riboud at Danone 


 Grameen France News Update - France origin in 2005 of the Global Grameen Corporate Social Business Model for Partners in pro-youth market sectors - leading in purpose of value chains of milk GrameenDanone , water GrameenVeolia, authorized social business funds GrameenCreditAgricole & DanoneCommunities, first chair of social business at HEC  rsvp if you have links to other market sectors  that France is a pro-youth world leading partner in
Latest entries in French Video Archive : quarter 1 2013 L'express   quarter 4 2012 France Pavillion of Rio+20 Schneider Partnership on clean energy with Grameen Shakti, quarter 3 2012  video concerning Renault Mobiliz - now a co-sponsor of the HEC SB Chair
GrameenFrance portal for pro-youth journalists is sponsored by Norman Macrae Foundation- The Economist's Pro-Youth Economist- selected resources from  and

Teenager IQ tests on 1) Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank 2) Entrepreneurial Revolution and The Economist help Norman Macrae Foundation (email ) develop these tests and supporting content for these and other curriculum of MOOCyunus.

vote for top 100 microfranchises of net generation  click to understand why The Economist 1984 forecast entrepreneurial development of 30000 microfranchises needed to sustain net generation-…

example Grameen Energy -gshakti .Exponential rising Success Factors (eg million solar installed doubling every 3 years) -depended on getting 1000+ engineers to live in villages  -massive logistics challenge only possible once engineers empowered by mobile phones another global village first of grameen with some financial help from Soros and knowledge support from Neville Williams whose own self franchise never quite inspired so many village engineers but was built pre-mobile age  - Grameen Energy is the most benchmarked case of the ashden energy Oscars  ...more..



.LEGEND ..G- global system challenges.. E energy ... Y yunus as a student ...YY Yunus Youth Investment Models,,,PM-Poverty Museum as uniting human race of 2010s...  EU world that Ends Unemployment ... H Health including mhealth so nobody dies before their time -GGVC Global Grameen Value Chains -- BM Business Models ... TR Technology Revolution ... MY MoocYunus to free pro-youth education..


Help Norman Macrae Foundation ( email compile

The Yunus Video Archive of pro-youth action learnings

-eg 2nd quarter 2013 


World Service British Broadcasting Corporation Y

10th Skoll World Championships Oxford MY MoocYunus to free pro-youth education

Aljazeera English News Today- End irresponsible value chains including Bangladesh's world number 2 exporter of garments GGVC

World Bank Spring Meeting YY - additional reference wholeplanet search 100 leaders of 2010s-youths most productive decade

USA Congress Gold Medal of Yunus please note that the first 27 minutes and 57 seconds of this video is blank - then us politicians of all stripes celebrate yunus who is free to speak from 1 6 mins 36 seconds ; more videos from congress on this topic from 3rd quarter 2010 are at Solar E1.13.55 ; G1.14.23; PM1.16.00 EU 1.16.41 H1.17.23

London School of Economics TR 41.51 Tech Revolution for whom? ,,, compare yunus crisis of BM 36.34 with Economist survey of Entrepreneurial Revolution 1976 The Economist. Saturday, 25 December 1976.
Pages 41-43. Vol 261, issue 6956

 Help us Update The Economist's Curriculum of Entrepreneurial Revolution Keynes- economists either design or destroy the futures youth need most. The greatest risk occurs at times of huge change.

Curriculum of free nursing college published apr 2013 

pro-youth health and education resources 



  Entrepreneurial Revolution Year 41 of The Economist's pro-youth course





Latest download to collaborate in curriculum of Entrepreneurial Revolution - open licence asserted by Foundation Norman Macrae, The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant - queries ; pro-youth course index -economics;  energy and waste , nutrition, water and food security, nursing and health, education reformation,  microfranchise, open technology, mass media celebrating collaboration and peace ...


Grameen Pathways to Global Village Youth Productivity -favorite connections from 10 youth trips to bangladesh sponsored by NMF

Global Village Practice.Youtube..Webportal..Youth-Free Edu & Journalists..Other..

.85000 villages.








Food/Nutrition.......1..WPF WKF...

.Open Tech.











Future Purposes 


Formal SBFunds






.1..CC web...
.Garment Supply..........GUniqlo.
.Superstars........MY SfH...

xGrameen Byabosa Bikash


help us show why france merits being in a top 10 worldwide tour of exploring youth, yunus and grameen being prepared in 12 minute modular forms as part of the MOOCyunus project 1

 fall 2012 as any reader of The Economist's Entrepreneurial Revolution 1 2 since 1972 knows: the sustainability of the net generation was always likely to depend on the purpose for which the first trillion dollar global social brand partnership is designed. French leaders are helping this to make 2010s youth's most productive time leveraging million times more collaboration technology than when man raced to the moon in the 1960s. The microeconomic way ahead celebrates investing in youth's millennium goal impacts through every global village network - see examples such as Riboud at Danone, Hirsch at Civic Society, Nowak at ADIE - please rsvp to collaborate in sharing more links on who's who of creating the next 3 billion jobs worthy of the net generation.And bravo too for Paris now epicentre of the world's greatest millenium goal summit with 5000 participants september 2012.

online library of norman macrae - The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant

Click pics below: download free Journal of Social Business -suggest future content here

ISSUE 1 Social Business Rocks

.ISSUE 3 What to Celebrate from 15 years of Microcreditsummit



.Download issue 7 on student competions with yunus


Franck Riboud- 200/7 leaders of 2010s -youth's most productive generation

FREEMARKET Role - Europe's Number 1 Partner in Entrepreneurial Revolution

What would world miss without Franck Riboud?.......................................

Without Franck Riboud - and his sustainability investment advisers at Danone and HEC - Dr Muhammad Yunus would not have found a global brand leader prepared to put billions of dollars of goodwill into Yunus 3rd Entrepreneurial Revolution: -the launch of global social business partnerships. Launched in 2005, ER3 aims to linkin danone with yunus/grameen brand architecture as youth world's favorite mission-maker. This can be achieved by celebrating good new media and learning how to joyfully question how to free the pro-youth future of every global market relevant to millennium goal races . Yunus calls these the poverty museum race and the SB stockmarket win-win-win game > Yes we can invest in ending poverty and empowering the net generation as youth's most productive time

World ER firsts include; paris world champion of social business; danone communities SB fund; danone communities portal; world's first social business professorship; making entrepreneur the favorite economic construct of the net generation in France and beyond!; the most exciting infant nutritional product that 21st C China has co-invented

Without Riboud's lead other extraordinary french partners might not have formed around yunus: grameen credit agricole's 2 funds; veolia's water ecology partnerships; schneiders support of the second million of solar units installed by grameen energy; renault's new partnership in the social future of auto

Next youth collaboration challenges

How can we help America's and Europe's leaders of Entrepreneurial Revolution invite ceos into a mother of all benchmarking movements.

Europe will be the first region to collapse in the sub-prime trap wall street spun out to the world unless we urgently stage a pro-youth future review of every market sector and adapt every economical franchise that youth jobscompetitions are waving round the world

Moreover, how can we help youth mediate CONVERGENCES such as:

Paris is now the epicentre of the world's number 1 millennium goals summit

Paris is also the epicentre of Europe's saftest banking model for investing in youth - see Maria Nowak

How can we link in future of universities to SMBA first planned as a partnership vehicle in sustaining pro-youth futures by HEC's Benedict Faivre-Tavignot

NB - iss interesting to connect the nutrition stories of western and eastern world's greatest Entrepreneurial Revolutionaries. Yunus. first non-banking line extension involved nutrition for infants c. 1980; nutrition has from birth flowed through the corporate purposes of both Danone and Whole Foods. It is also nutrition that is at the heart of transformation of USAID beyond aid and the flagship private-public partnerships intended to be celebrated by How do we make sure youth is involved in mediating all such partherships?

Norman Macrae Foundation next actions

Help us to complete the dots in the greatest celebrations of Entrepreneurual Revolution since 1976

1976.1 The Economist launches the genre of ER to promote youth-economics necessary for coming net generation to be most productive time to be alive

1976.2 Yunus starts testing investment banking for world's poorest communities instructed by village mothers collaboration wishes to invest in their next generation

1982.1 Norman Macrae and The Economist launch valuation map of service economics-

teams , franchises are pivotal processes in valuing how productiuvely human lifetimes can serve community needs. This makes all industrial age past MBA constructs suspect at best. Two years later any ER can see why the 21st C world will need to be saved from old professions wherever they dont fully value goodwill, trust, joy, emotional intelligence, transparent conflict resoluton, ending risk comounding at boundaries in the coming borderless world.

1984 Norman published first book valuing the net generation and inviting worldwide entrepreneurs to join in the race to help net generation co-create 3 billion jobs

1988 Norman Macrae launches for media professionals who want to do good with media and for professionals who want to do good with metrics by studying multi-win models

1996 Yunus launches ER2 - how can youth and 100000 grameen village hubs mobilise web tech to bring down degrees of separation on actioning any life critical information -consequence grameenphone is bangladesh's most valued corporation and a generation of bangaldeshi youth are world leaders in mobile tech

Martin Hirsch- 400/1 leaders of 2010s -youth's most productive generation

FREEMARKET Role - Designer of the most vocationally interesting Civil Service

What would world miss without Martin Hirsch

Can you find a civil service that cares more practically about the vocational experience it gives youth than France's Service Civique

Hirsch appears to have converged his whole career including past posts as minister of youth and poverty alleviation towards maximising partnerships and pride in service-civique in such a way that every youth mission is an action learning experience

Between 2008-2011, Martin has taken at least 25 French companies over to Dhaka to experience what Yunus means by social business

What youth collaboration challenges is Hirsch centre of

Try and get Yunus to sit down with Hirsch for half an hour and discuss whether yunus format of student sb competitions (see jobscompetitions) and martin Hirsch's of civil service could become more than their parts. Both celebrate making youth central to leadership partnering programs that pulls on resources that often not made available to youth even though they are public.

Norman Macrae Foundation next actions

Try and find someone to write up the impacts of Hirsch's societal entrepreneurial projects in English. The whole world needs to learn from them and they can make prime time content for journal of social business and youth economics. In some ways they represent the most exciting - and large scale partnership - between governement and youth that I have seen - do rsvp if you have seen other exemplars

5:13 pm edt

Maria Nowak- 200/6 leaders of 2010s -youth's most productive generation

FREEMARKET Role - Europe's banking movement for the unemployed and more

What would world miss without Maria Nowak

Any community in Europe wanting to start up a bank that helps put youth back to work is best advised to seek maria nowak's advice first

1. She is a Polish_Parisian economist who has been working over 3 decades to integrate what financial services non-banks are allowed to offer in each of the different european nations - her benchmark loans to end unemployment network started in france at but her knowledge supports project jasmine networks across europe from poland to france- and several of her associates also help connect the banks with values network Global Alliance – For Banking on Values +1'd this publicly. Independent banks delivering sustainable development for unserved people.

Next youth collaboration challenges

The EU hosted 2 belated summits end of 2011 admitting that the last chance of getting youth back to work depends on meshing 2 mechanisms:

Searches of what social solutions microentrepreneurs can replicate as community-grounded franchises

Mobilising the last untapped source of credits through what is called social impact bonds; unless maria's open knowledge networking are linked by EU to the financial wizards negotiation hundreds of billions dollars worth of bonds from foundations, there is little likelihood of europe escaping the longest -and most unnecessary -recession ever

maria is currently spending a lot of time in Tunisia helping entrepreneurs with its micrloan foundations

Norman Macrae Foundation next actions

While its a blow that many nations wont let non-banks offer saving products, the most important dynamic investing in getting youth back to work across europe involves replicating community-owned franchises -ie once person has found out to use a practice market to get started as a microentrepreneur, share that knowledge with any other in-network unemployed youth capable of serving that expertise

q&a to help accelerate wider understanding of adie such include:

2 what sorts of peer to peer jobs networks are most numerous across all adie investments

poland has one of the strongest economies in europe relative to where it was 20 years ago -what can we learn from its community banks and is dad's polish friend jan winiecki still alive or who are his alumni given my fathers support of him as much the most sensible person to transition ex soviet economies -

1:13 pm edt


Yunus- 100/1 leaders of 2010s -youth's most productive generation

FREEMARKET Role - ACTION LEADER of 50 Most Exciting Concepts Youth Have Ever Dreame of Collaboratively Realising

What would world miss without Yunus

Yunus is globally most recognised as number 1 pro-youth economist and innovator of the most purposeful goals peoples can invest in. Yunus has noticed that western economists excluded society's most vital demands from every performance measure they compute- a very serious error given Keynes finding that increasing the world is ruled only by economics (ie nations and so youth's future sustainability doesn't exist separately from what global economics rules)

Historically Yunus' greatest innovations include:

Creating investment banks around 8 million of the world's poorest village mothers

Making their number 1 investment the ending of digital divides with everything that can be mobilised across 100000 village hubs of microentrepreneurs;

It turns out that the best banks for ending poverty are also the best banks for youth job creation everywhere

Helping Bangladesh youth be a leader in mobile technology's most purposeful uses, and sharing Asia's greatest sustainability solutions every community needs to freely replicate

What youth collaboration challenges is Yunus centre of

After 20 of my own interviews with dr Yunus (and another 20 by people sponsored by NM foundation as we circulated Yunus 2000 bookclub and 10000 dvd club) I have compiled a top 50 challenges that Yunus is looking for particular citizens and youth to originate and then share. He also wants a share in all the value this created to be invested back in his 8 million village mothers next entrepreneurial revolutions

The right hand column shows Norman Macrae foundations next collaboration actions around Yunus top 50chalenges. We compile ideas on what different cities could help Yunus lead at we welcome correspondence if you have ideas on how to help Yunus as one of top 100 leaders connecting net generation as the most productive time for youth to be alive

Please note at least 2 more of NM top 100 are Bangladeshi. However due to hostile politics we don't currently publish their goals.

Also please note more detailed cases are published in Journal of Social Business whose launch with 3000 leaders of Dr Yunus choice we committed to within 3 months of Norman's parting as our family's main commitment at Yunus weekend Scotland 4 July 2010

Norman Macrae Foundation next actions

latest mailbag on fall 2012 actions on how to help youth and yunus link together the net generation's 50 most productive projects than can benefit from


Y1 next meet 28 September 2012: Our family in Washington Washington DC is seeing if this capital can stage one of largest student entrepreneur competitions thru 2012-13 - current world leader Tokyo 12000 live youth competition; we also welcome opportunities to connect judge panels of all youth entrepreneur competitions

Y2 Paris September week 2 - we aim to co-host various NM remembrance parties during the number 1 millennium goals summit

4th quarter - we are looking to host remembrance parties with Japan and Chinese leaders of Norman's economic maps of Asia pacific century published in The Economist from 1975 on

Tell us yours next actions rsvp

Remembrance parties role of honor

1 boardroom the economist and microgreen's number 1 philanthropic network

2 S.African Mandela partners in virtually free university education coordinated around Taddy Blecher

3 Japan Embassy in Asia celebrating Bangladesh's first 40 years of revolutions in sustainability economics and grassroots networking

Help with shared diarues of yunus collaborations at and

link-billion green (eg solar biogas zero waste designs ) jobs www.grameengreen,com ; billion colaboration tech jobs ; billion community jobs (eg health education peace job-creating banks) - with norman macrae's (The Economist's) 1984 3 billion job compass for celebrating net generation productivity and millennium goal demands pictured below


sharing Yunus' 13 greatest gifts to peoples and planet -discuss

13 made charity sustainable, and aid bottom-up and wholly collaborative

12 demonstrated greatest sustainable investment club owned by world's poorest mothers -and economics lesson 101: no place or nation can grow unless capital taken from family's savings is invested in next generations productivity

11 clarified best privatization model promising the return to affordable (e)government and brilliant public service and borderless infrastructures

10 put youth at centre of exploring how net generation can be 10 times more produtive

by giving the entrepreneurial purpose of education back to youth

9 changed the valuation of media (and heroines) back to discovering and championing solutions to most life critical of needs

8 cracked entrepreneurial revolution challenge (The Economist 1976)- how each global market sector can be feed to value its greatest multi-win purpose by partners in transparent mapmaking

7 showed business and society models for scaling most exciting service franchises as community-owned and open sourced'

6 inspired the greatest experiments ever envisioned with mobile tech and grassroots networks of innovation hubs

5 made the peoples active participation in millennium goal possibilities joyfully cross-cultural and accessible worldwide (ie both local and global staged). This includes the 170 year-long goal of economic journalism: end youth being born into hunger/poverty.

4 empowered human beings to breakthrough all the crises of compound risk and opportunity that von neumann had foreseen as our generation's responsibility for all future generations

3 restored the hippocratic oaths of economists and rule-making professional monopolies whom keynes, einstein, gandhi and montessori had foreseen as the greatest system8ic risk to the sustainability of our children's children everywhere

2 inspired 360 degree viewpoints on how uniting round girl power always offers peaceful escape routes even to the most fearsome hotspots that big brotherdom conflicts

1 helped youth and leaders collaborate in making the next 3 billion jobs -see

please contribute to the atlas! wash dc 1 301 881 1655 june 2012


Healthcareend nurseless village – free nursing colleges
Educationvirtually free university movements- student jobs competitions- understand where future of jobs come from – least source is passing exams
Connect most resourced universities tech advance with universities nearest to most urgent societal labs (eg MIT & Alabama)
Knowhow tech –whole story of borderless youth economies 84-24 but order of play matters – invest in youth 5000 networks whose collaboration can sustain worldwide growth faster than elder 5000 nets can destroy sustainability; map 3 billion jobs creation and link to youth co-producing most exciting millennium goals
Mass mediavital role of bbc and public media- vital role of future of stars
Safety, Peace – needs cross-cultural youth facilitation in every community-
peace dividend move over from biggest nation employer armed forces to biggest = civic service
Water, food, nutrition – celebrate that both community banks and health start with nutrition community investments value why paris-HEC sustainability net chose most important first global cluster of yunus
Energy Waste solar and photosynthesis energy – and total higher quality value chain of agriculture and clean- and impacts on peace as solar is a distributed source

2012: Join us at facebook as we complete 40 years of Entrepreneurial Revolution research on how to co-create the net generation's next 3 billion jobs- final cases being prepared for this book on why economics either destroys or designs the futures that youth want most.
Mediate principles of youth economics
1 Places cant grow if capital (family savings) not invested in next gen’s productivity
2 World trade as such doesn’t impact human race’s growth – energy and tech does
3 Entrepreneurial Revolution debate hosted by economist since 1972 on grounds of energy and tech- net generation greatest growth or destruction of worldwide increase in productivity of human lifetimes
4 value Japan multi-win models of economics- knowledge multiplies value in use unlike industrial age consuming up things
Financial Services –action learn from investment banking in youth
Cashless banking –community first franchises
Advance prep world debates on Tech changes Value Chain – youth and community sustaining first
End government –led bubbles –currency, property, any big vested interest not pro-youth
Trillion dollar audits of unseen wealth’s exponentials (up & down) pop by mass media and digital media

Over 20 years ago Norman Macrae helped formed an ER club, which also became the genre "world class brands", for media practioners that believed it is possible to multiply goodwill (instead of
badwill) around the world with media.


The simplest exercise we invite your collaboration is to brand charter is visions of each markets purpose when designed round what people most want -and trust- from that market's most knowledgeable doers and connectors

media - our favorite charter by an entrepreneur in media revolves round designing content (stimulus) "to take part in a severe contest between intelligence which presses forward, and an unworthy timid ignorance obstructing our progress"

education - at times of great change (early 20h C Gandhi & Montessori, early 21st C why not every educator and parent ) -prioritise providing youth structures to joyfully create jobs or maximise how their unique lifetimes can generate income by applying community-grounded franchises serving each other- and never to see examanitaion of old facts as an end in itself

an advanced exercise becomes converging 2 or more market's purposes- do you have a good enough wording of the purpose of education and media for the net generation to celebrate? we'd love to celebrate it here :...

Inviting publishers of pro-youth economics: the idea is rising with journal of social business and our associates including pro-youth projects of The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant: why not turn whole planet into a sector by sector charter of how to value that sector's free market so as to create more youth jobs everywhere as well as optimally contributing to the race to poverty museums? Abed (72), Yunus (76), Macrae (84).. - if you agree in investing in net generation to co-produce this goal , send your name to and a link dating when you first valued this goal

The Future' Economies by Youth's Most Valued Professional Mapmaker - What can you first Linkin to with the Joy of Being Free to Produce (source Nobel Peace Prize 2006)We Create What We Want.
We wanted to go to the moon, so we went there.
We achieve what we want to achieve.
We accept that poverty is part of human destiny. It’s not!
We believe we can create a poverty-free world.
We need to invent ways to change our perspective.
We can reconfigure our world if we can reconfigure our mindset. .
Social business will be a new kind of business, making a difference in the world.
Human beings are a wonderful creation embodied with limitless human qualities and capabilities.
Entrepreneurs are not one-dimensional human beings, dedicated to maximizing profit.
They are multi-dimensional: political, emotional, social, spiritual, environmental.
The desire to do great things for the world can be a powerful driving force
Young people dream about creating a perfect world of their own.
Social business will give them a challenge to make a difference by using their creative talent.
Let us join hands to unleash our energy and creativity.
Collectively, we can create a poverty-free world.”
Source :

The other way involves a little mathematics to map out multi-win models -which we discuss here.
However one technical issue comes top. Its understanding compound impacts. Let's say that you double your productivity or reaching your life's most exciting goal every 8 years- that means over a lifetime of 40 years you can 2*2*2*2*2*2= 32 times multiply growth or progress your greatest goal. How much growth do you need to attain each year to do that - just 9.1%. When banks or others responsible for peoples intergenerational savings reward people for aiming at excess of 9% annual returns they are behaving in ways that are statistically bound to destroy the future of the place your children live in. Conversely just because some errant bankers may have bankrupted your place that does not mean that right now that place's youth should be imprisoned from developing the great possibilities of the net generation. If german , swiss , american banking or politicians say youth anywhere should be deprived of the net generation's unprecdented access to million times more collaboration productivity than when man raced to moon in the 1960s then they are not only disatrously wrong economically but they haven't learnt from history what causes wars between nations. And in this era of ever increasing human interconnectvity causing such aggression to spiral will probably end human sustainability even faster than man's current war with nature over climate!

It turns out that there is little chance of the human race working on futures our childrens most need unless enough people, of every diversity and practical context, take charge of mediating what economics rules. And there are two ways for people to humanise media including old broadcast and new interaction. The simplest way , which everyone can do with joy, is vision a future that matters most to you and your peers and identify a leader who is inviting everyone who trusts each other to make that future happen. This web believes in hunting out 100 leaders who want 2010s (and net generation) to be most productive time to be youth anywhere. Please help us identify such leaders.



When Norman Macrae Family first met yunus in 07 he was working up SB book 1 on the parisian idea to co-create the first trillion dollar global brand partnering media . mapnext3billionjobs99.jpg
This sought to celebrate news of every global corporation promoting local job creation by ... MICROFRANCHISE
sharing technology in ways that open sourced community owned franchsies starting with youth-led initiatives (Grameen Social Labs) in the world's poorest (or least sustainable) communities . Why shouldn't such a purpose be worth more than any apple or facebook or murdochian empire? In any event here we collect good news of corporations promoting local jobs through open techshare projects- and demand that public media investigate this concept in ways they have so far dismally failed to do in first 28 years of netizen debates of IT
Chris Macrae nearly a quarter of a century ago, 2 people graduated from HEC in paris - one's first job was at Mother Theresa's , another's at a microcredit in south america- by 2005 their career ladders had advanced enough to ask danone and hec leaders to put the global grameen proposition to yunus. Soon credit agricole, hirsch's civil society, veolia, schneider electric, renault were joining in - if only other capitals had found as many tech partners for yunus the net=generation as most productive time for youth would be winning the war of lost confidence that wall streets and EU's badwill economics of the 2000s has compounded
Why did Paris win the Future Capital Race of 2010? Hosted 3 Entrepreneuruial Revolution summits maximising empowerment of youth webs in year (2010) including Digital4Change. See More at crowdmap link 



see pages 32-35 of danone report : latest update published on danone communities ...........................................................................................................................................................-

Create new models to reach consumers

at the base of the pyramid (BOP)

Danone’s first experiments in this field led to the creation of the danone.

communities fund at end-2006
(see pages 92 to 94 of the 2009 SustainabilityReport) with a first pilot (“lab”) tested in the form of a social business

in Bangladesh.

Building on the Bangladesh experience, Danone created the in-house

organization “Base Of the Pyramid” (BOP) in 2009, with the goal of radically

innovating to transform Danone’s business and invent new models focused on

the health impact of Danone products for the largest possible number of people.

At end-2010, the first BOP business was created in India in

the form of a new production unit and a dedicated local team

This new BOP (“Base Of the Pyramid”) business, created in under a year

in India with the support of local suppliers, aims to provide very low-income

populations with products whose nutritional qualities meet the needs of children.

Over the course of 2011, four new products for children were launched by this

new entity: two fresh dairy yogurts and two long-life dairy products in tetrapaks

to compensate for the lack of a cold chain in these regions.

The new products have four key features: affordability, access to nutrition,

the brand as a guarantee of a health/pleasure balance (Fundooz), and local

connections at every level of the value chain.

The product mix definition integrated all local specificities while seeking

to meet the goal of offering balanced nutritional benefit at a price adapted

to the population’s standard of living and the value of coins (priced at 10 rupees

per pot and five per portion).

Nutritional studies based on Danone tools (Nutripack, see page 14 of this report)

have made it possible to identify children’s nutritional deficiencies,

noting for example that 70% of children under age 15 have deficiencies.

32 Danone Sustainability Report 2011 A 360° innovation underpins this experimentation

with a new business model

The BOP team innovated not only by creating a very flexible production

unit from scratch, inspired by the Bangladesh experience and able to produce

a high-nutrition product at low cost, but also in the distribution model

which was designed entirely based on the habits of the targeted consumers

to maximize the products’ visibility in every location. Capitalizing on the

experience of the Route to Market tools, the entire distribution model was

aligned with consumers’ movement through various locations (schools,

public spaces, etc.) at different times of the day, and implemented using local

transportation methods (such as carts), with a multi-functional approach

to vehicles and a preference for local access.

Specific local communication methods were also implemented in the cities

to create direct contact with consumers: awareness in schools, door-to-door,

city tours, nutrition-based events, etc.

One year later, at end-2011, these concrete achievements demonstrate

Danone’s ability to adapt and transform its organizations to implement, very

rapidly (less than one year to create the production plant) and with limited

investments, new business forms whose goal is to demonstrate the replicability

of the Danone model in the most distant new regions.

danone.communities: five years of development

danone.communities is a social business incubator whose mission is to promote,

support and finance social businesses that want to contribute to eliminating

malnutrition and poverty.

danone.communities was created in 2007 following an encounter between

Danone CEO Franck Riboud and Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen

Bank and 2006 Nobel Peace Prize winner. The first project arising from the

danone.communities initiative is Grameen Danone Foods Ltd, one of the initial

cornerstones of the social business edifice.

To take things even further, Danone collaborated with Crédit Agricole in 2007

to create an innovative financial tool for supporting the development of social

business initiatives, the danone.communities SICAV (French mutual fund).

At least 90% of this fund’s equity is invested in a selection of fixed-income

instruments in the euro zone that favor an SRI approach, and up to 10%

is invested in social businesses through the danone.communities FCPR

(venture capital fund).

THE stratEgY In action 2011 REsultS - Focus ON THE FOUR STRATEGIC PRIORITIES


Danone Sustainability Report 2011 33

Today danone.communities provides technical and financial support to ten

projects, including seven in which the FCPR has already invested, and three

in the incubation stage. At end-2011, the SICAV was valued at around €70

million, following a year in which the number of projects receiving FCPR

financing rose from five (in 2010) to seven.

Through these ten projects, the geographic scope of danone.communities

stretches from Mexico to Bangladesh, via France, Senegal, India, Cambodia

and China, in three different business sectors:

• “Water” (with the Mexican, Indian and Cambodian projects;

• “Nutrition” (with five projects including Grameen Danone Foods Ltd

and Laiterie du Berger);

• and “Developed countries” (with two projects in France).

In 2011, the SICAV received Novethic SRI certification which “recognizes

the strict SRI approach applied by Amundi [who manages the tool], the

transparency of its analysis and investment processes and the quality of its

non-financial reporting.”

The FCPR invested in seven projects in 2011, including two

new projects, in water, nutrition and the developed countries

Water: providing access to drinking water in rural areas thanks to filtration

technologies and small or very small plants.

1001 Fountains (Cambodia) is the first danone.communities project

in the water sector (2008). Since its creation, 1001 Fountains has installed 54

water purification stations and impacts almost 70,000 people daily. Chai Lo,

its Cambodian founder, received the “2011 Best Social Entrepreneur” award

for Asia from the Schwab Foundation.

Naandi Community Water Services (India) received danone.communities

FCPR investment in 2010 and has a model very similar to that of 1001

Fountains, but on a larger scale. Today, with stations installed in nearly 400

villages, Naandi Community Water Services is the danone.communities

project with the largest overall impact.

El Alberto is the final danone.communities water project in 2011.

Based in Mexico, El Alberto aims to provide safe drinking water to the

communities of the state of Hidalgo. The water purification center was

officially opened in October 2011, and the project aims to improve the

living conditions of 130,000 people living in these communities.

El Alberto

Created on the initiative of Xochilt

Galvez, President of the Porvenir

Foundation and member of the

danone.communities board of

directors, the El Alberto project aims

to bring safe drinking water to the

indigenous communities of the state

of Hidalgo in the center of the

country. This project should

provide 130,000 people with access

to safe water at an affordable price

(9 pesos/20L, or €0.53/20L) and

contribute to creating 200 jobs

for women from the communities

where the water distribution centers

are located.

34 Danone Sustainability Report 2011 Nutrition: providing nutritional solutions adapted to children’s tastes

and needs in emerging countries.

Grameen Danone Foods Ltd. (Bangladesh) is the fund’s first project,

created in 2007 (see box).

Laiterie du Berger (Senegal), the fund’s second project, has the specific

mission of using local fresh milk production and improving the living

conditions of the Pular livestock farmers. In 2011, this mission was reinforced

through sales growth (+60% in August) supported by a new advertising

campaign and more extensive distribution. The project also crossed an

important threshold in its financial consolidation, notably achieving positive

gross operating profit in October 2011.

NutriGO in China is the newest of the danone.communities projects, which

aims to combat childhood malnutrition in rural China through an awareness

program and a fortified dietary supplement, the YingYang-Bao product.

Currently in its pilot phase, the project estimates that the program will benefit

6,000 babies in the coming year.

Grameen Danone Foods Ltd

The pioneering danone.communities

project, Grameen Danone Foods

Ltd., aims to combat child

malnutrition in Bangladesh with a

yogurt fortified with micronutrients,

Shokti Doï. With the support of a

solid network of Shokti Ladies (878),

sales grew significantly at the end

of the year, peaking at nearly 2.9

million units in October 2011.

The encouraging results of a

study carried out by Gain and Johns

Hopkins University on the health

impact for children of Shokti Doï,

the micronutrient-fortified yogurt

produced by Grameen Danone

Foods Ltd, should also be published

in 2012.


The NutriGO project is the fruit of a partnership between Dumex,

danone.communities, Grand Billion International Trading Limited (GBIT),

One Foundation and NPI Foundation (two Chinese NGOs) and the

International Life Sciences Institute Focal Point (ILSI-FP), a Chinese public

institute for nutrition research. This project aims to combat child malnutrition

in rural China through an awareness program and a fortified dietary

supplement. The NutriGO project seeks to reach populations that have

not had access before now to nutritional information and products,

by training rural women in nutrition and sales.

THE stratEgY In action 2011 REsultS - Focus ON THE FOUR STRATEGIC PRIORITIES



summer 2012 update

subject celebrating europe's number 1 financial service network for investing in youth's jobs' ; world's best for developing world news network

dear french collaboration entrepreneurs


we want to host 2 norman macrae (The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant) remembrance parties in paris on these subjects on either 17 or 18 september during week of ; for each party i offer 1000 euros towards costs which I assume means we can hire a comfortable space and have wine water and cheese and bread; if some other organisation wants to sustain this celebration as a series etc (then they are welcome to take it over but not the first nominations)


guest of honor for the financial serves celebration is maria nowak as I believe that eu microcreditsummit identified her partners in nearly 20 countries as the benchmark case for best job investing financial services network


guest of honor for best news broadcaster of developing world is one of the 2 founders of


my suggestion is we arange visits of the postgrads advance party to maria and to africa24 to see if these diary dates work for our guests and to get their ideas on who they would like invitations sent to =-meanwhile i assume youth and others that we typically meet when we go to paris will be interested in joining in- we should snail mail sme cheeky invitations - eg commissioner barnier is in town and I assume identifying party1 is his main job; there is no harm sending people like mo ibrahim and mary robinson invitations to party 2 as their transparency/rights efforts have both inspired africa24's emergence


I am absolutely delighted if by proposing the benchmarks people blog other contenders


and equally if we can start to do this for different regions -eg including asking sir tom hunter to help nominate scottish cases then why no hold a wee scottish party if tom will attend and his nominations will too ; when it comes to the hunt for exciting development stories the surviving norman macrae in edinburgh has just published a wee book

chris macrae wash dc hotline 301 881 1655 -

inviting collaboration around The Economist's Glossary of Entrepreneurial Revolution Networks since 1976

transparency note : my first book on media "world class brands" was written in 1989 after 10 years of work with a french-global company whose partnership with MIT collected the deepest database of what societies wanted from global corporate brands- it was clear then that the 21st C  greatest free markets (those helping to make 2010s youths most productive and sustanable decade) will cut down the tv ad spot to a bit part player -vive la global grameen netgen economie!


Help us log up how france is helping make 2010s youths most productive decade


Out of St Cloud Africa24tv has an audacious plan - to braodcast good news by and for African Youth. Why not celebrate African people as entreprenurial healthy and wealthy as anwyehre given a continnet of extraordinary resources -human and natural. Can you help Africa24 map the 100 most important industry sectors by and for Africans and who will be their most transparent leader out of each region. Any leader passing through parios with a view on who to do this is welcome to join the good news broadcasts out of St Cloud. Africa24tv is being built by an extraordianry journalists and an amazing operations officer who previously served Mo Ibrahim's vison and before that helped lead microsoft africa. Africa24tv's founder is also one of the best linked in journalists at MIT - see diary report at

Africa24 special magazine edition of 500 african entrepreneurs What if the world celebrated a growing pattern of good news stories like these "Telecom la guerre des prix; les fortunes be Nollywood; Le mystere de fonds Lbyens; La flambee de green business; Les stars qui investissent; la montee des entrepreneurs sociales; La batalle d'aerien"

Kenya is Africa's Silicon Valley offering the most trusted financial models of investing in youth's mobile livelihoods(software busienesses are already in its top 3 exports causing Google Africa to headhunt one of its former hi-tech leaders). Kenya is also a world destination for ecovilages like Kaputei and celebratng the green movements initiated by the late great Nobel laureate Wangaari Mathai.

Algeria and Morocco are celebrated as extraordinary places for women busienss leaders - see the memberships of SEVE and CRASC in Algeria; count up how many sectors have women ceos in Morocco

Cote D'Ivoire is not just an extraordinary agriculture epicentre (especially for chocolate); it celebrates such skills as architects and marketing agencies can offer

Ghana is at the convergence of so many great initiatives - that China chose Accra as the origin of its foirst young peoples business school in africa; it boasts africa's leading pharna company by and for Africans; this part of Africa has some of the most imposing busienss personalities I have ever met anywhere - Ghana's emerging joy is to demand that they are the best for african people that highly energised busienss leaders can be.

In neighbouring Ghana, watch out fror Africa's own IBM of tge future to evolve and if you are in ever in need of emergency medical asistance, than you lucky stars for the best flying doctors network in Africa

S.Africa the greatest educators and communiuty entrepreneurs including egov tools that can free this

tell us if you spot a jotful news story who else is entrepreneurially leading which industry out of Africa


With the exception of american economists, the world has known for at least half a generation that the exponential rising costs of tv ad spots had spun unsustainably. The opportunity of the internet was to free the first generation of knowledge workers innovation of markets from such dumbing down communications; the threat was that the unique smarts of new mediation would be drowned out by those who preferred command and control by big brother media.

 Norman Macrae’s remembrance party at The Economist Boardroom in 2010 celebrated this fact and is becoming a series of worldwide replays with the help of such microeconomics friends as the Embassy of Japan


The dismal social impacts of ads took a globally vicious spiraling turn at the start of the 1990s. This is when they partnered in greenwashing and then  the corporate social irreponsibility which happens whenever the biggest organisation in any market uses it leadership communications to say they cannot afford to be the first to be responsible about the compound risks its industry sector knows most locally about. I guest edited 2 special issues of journals on this distarous loss of freedom for markets to value trust – a triple issue of journal of marketing management in 1999 on the reality of errors global markets had made in 20th C which needed resolving if 21st C was to celebrate goodwill multiplication – and a double special issue of the Journal of Brand management on Total Corporate Responsibility a few years later. Knowing how relatively little this shook up the macroeconomic world, and I am in absolute awe of what 2 fort-something Parisians hosted in 2005.


In 2005 Paris broke through with the last sustainability luncheon. Hosted at HEC , it was the peak of 20 years of work of 2 hec alumni. Their first jobs had been at mother theresa’s and a perivian microcredit – these had planted the idea –which they nurtured for 20 years -  that once they had climbed the management ladder sufficiently they would try and host sustainability’s greatest lunch. They chose the soon to be Nobel laureate Muhammad Yunus and debated the question what if a cluster of global corporates partnered in grameen being the essence of the world’s most exciting sustainability network of partnerships mediated by the net generation – the ultimate un-greenwashing social media!


Riboud of Danone was the first to stand up to the corporate plate with HEC University promising to advertise that it wanted to untrain MBAs and Martin Hirsch prmoising every assistance that government could give in stimulating entrepreneurship as a local alternative to youth unmployment. Soon the remarkable riboud had got timing right to get Nobel the blessing of his shareholders investing in DanoneCommuniteis –The impact would be to reduce the amount marketing spent on ads as fast as he could celebrate with youth the greatest contributions to sustainability of danone’s 3 main sectors milk, water, and grains (the latter innovated a wonderful chinese triad partnerships making this once minor sectir of danone its most extraordinary breakthrough). In France the danone social business chair at HEC is now co-sponsored by schneider electrricity, and veolia envoromental services have committed to innovate what is the most responsible it can brand its sector as.


Joining Danone as world leeaders in freeing global markets to celebrate teir greatest responsibilities are the supermnarket wholefoods –see and the chip manufacourer Intel see

 A history of attempts to lead a global market without advertising would not be complete without a reference to brasnon whose virgin brand has always been most economical in sectors it led good service news of without ads. A few years ago branson decided he would start open sourcing an entrepreneurship course and chose as his partner taddy blecher free university in The good news is that you can enjoy the world’s best entrepreneur course without paying a penny of student loans as long as you commit to pay back with social solution innovations and peer to peer open sourcing of such. There is much more god news to come in out the convergences of partners in we are stewarding until he has time to write it up. Kiva have already joined and the head of Google Africa hubs ideas from the same neibourhood in Joburg.

 Europe -Measured against my father's yardsticks as Europe's most experienced post-war economist, we have as yet done nothing to systematically bend the curve on the sub-prime contagion that became visible in 2008. Therefore it would be prudent to assume that the convergences 2012 paris summit is entrepreneurial europe's (peoples' and youth's) last chance to link in network pre- and post-summit capable of preventing the total economic destruction of a generation of youth

If you need any help in posting suggestions to the summit secretariat, I can try and help. Some of the off piste agenda that currently most interest me as helping to action the joyful youth entrepreneurial revolution we all need to celebrate are:

surveys of university principals

show that few put job creation as their main purpose - those that do are the ones compatible with the entrepreneurial view of economics my father stood for

like banks, universities are a global sectors that could have used tech to become 90% more pro-youth economical by now but as that would have changed the nature of professors work absolutely -requiring thousands to go out with their students into society the way yunus had to in 1974 - we can see that the actualisation of a worldwide SMBA needed more than one lunch to form action networking partnerships round

the 3 most interesting worldwide epicentres of universities for job creation known to me are

1 taddy blecher free university who is also the person that inspired branson entrepreneur curriculum, has this year launched a great new partnership with kiva, and lives within miles of the head of google africa who was headhunted for the outstanding work on crowdmapping she had done in kenya - I should admit having a bias towards supporting taddy's innovations

for more rsvp -subject what could university convergences do

mathematically, (for economics crisis on above zero-sum game impacts see my father's biography of von neumann) the problem writ large is to do with total misvaluation of how to use 1 million times more powerful collaboration technology; consequently as it becomes clearer who are the metrics people that convergences 2015 most linkins around, I would love to know so I can research which I can use in my work of activising shareholders of The Economists; I can get to the ... families who would want The Economist to get back to economics that is pro-youth and pro-devekoment of empowering every global village but they are all overtrumped by the rothschilds who have always been the most difficult family of those owning The Economist to innovate with; I have booked a series of interviews with colleagues my father used to mentor on how to deal with the R


The Japanese have always been the most willing to partner my father in radically changing the macroeconomic errors of top down aid. Their embassies are helping to start a serial debrief of this late March ; I realise that date is pushing on the boundaries of conerhnces2012  planning timeline but...

 Rest of Developing World



Any nation whose people and government wanted Dr Yunus as their chief economist would be most fortunate during 2010s - the exciting net generation decade.That one at the most critical juncture of sustaining Asia Pacific www century – Norman Macrae, The Economist’s Unacknowledged Giant

chris macrae USA 1-  301 881 1655  (Washington DC)     

Click pic to download inaugural issue

Social Business Crowdmap - Main Reports Out of France

Bangladesh Gov to Rob Poor of Billions of Dollars of Goodwill?

31 rue Croix des petits champs , 75001, paris, 0 Kms

Service Civique

paris, 0.7 Kms

Paris Wins ER Future Capital of 2010

rue de elysee paris france, 1.11 Kms

Mary Robinson, ADIE & Friends of Grameen

87 Rue Doudeauville 75018 Paris, 1.75 Kms

Selection of News around GlobalGrameen  :
Journal Papers contributed from France Include
Other deep resources from France 
Global Grameen Brand  Fan Clubs began in France: GrameenDanone 
they  are becoming a global phenomenon -eg- GrameenIntel

This site  The Web 



1.4 Y1 Y2


More sustainability fans webs :


sofia just doublechecking some pervasive links before trip  to GrameenFrance :


-did you pick up on this conversation -some of the exciting points being:

chris temple is the epicentre of and bringing 50 us youth to kenya

it is good to hear he wants to see yunus book - you could write privately that it is 80% likely you can bring him a photocopy especially if his group want to work out to what extent other 50 student microcredit clubs need to change for 2010/11; you might see See if chris’s 50 student group have time to complete the one minute exponentials game dedicated to drucker and claremont- unfortunately like a lot in click age it takes one minute to play but a lifetime (if you have a microentrepreneurial change mindset) to learn, action and correct


 greatest productivity game humans will ever play


drucker said within 2 generation knowledge workers can be at least 50 time more productive than industrial age - what did he expect sustainability's exponential rising and job creation's value multipliers to be-


for example if there were 4 multiplying factors A*B*C*D


and let's say

*A=1.6 comes from smart programming of computers


* B=3 come from self-esteem energising teamwork and micrentrepreneurial job creation  and sustainability of youth community building


*C=3 comes from open source , and knowledge multiplying value in use And other stuff that eg manuel castells and don tapscott researched that net gens hoped www would be once berners has started this above zero-value game-space up

D=3.5 That in knowledge age we develop great basic community-life critical products at lowest cost eg with help of or  and then luxury stuff at higher cost which customises  higher quality to those with very untypical needs from the mass of us who need vibrant open communities. In this process ad spots are wholly redundant (economics can be happy again) but new media like is particularly economical -particularly if all london youth celebrate its hi-trust job creation events while very high cost 20th c brands still pay 100 million to be at the sports olympics or going down to the woods today with tiger.  


Data on multipliers collecetd - We can then play a recursive questiong game – but remember (as lawyers like Bill Gatwes never wholly does) that these multipliers are the final exponential impact multipliers not last quarters immediate addictions

 RECURSION GAME ON 50 TIMESHave I missed out E altogether (if so how do you describe it); if other people put a number  on the multipliers where would they start having the most opposite view from me – eg is there a group who think its all about brilliant programming independent of the people factors; how do those at eg  moderate a group of them, a group of me , and then a group mixing us until we understand each others -individually passionate and commnally proud brand reality system multipliers
chris is at claremont where rick (who also was yunus booktour 1 LA intervuiewer) is epicentre of all drucker knowledge in a formal way whereas gladius at uni of E london is world epicentre in an informal way and at social entreprise olympics campus - some california unis formed 3500 bookclubs of yunus SB book 1 so both claremon and warner wandsworth Utah networks have a way to go to catch up with knowledge co-working around SB book 2 Utah is where Alexis of NYU comes from and she was first USA youth ambassador yunus shook hands with jan 2009; alex will recall he couldnt get up from DC to meet yunus because of a clash of class schedules so insetad I funded him nearly 50 tickets on february day yunus came to DC, GWU and IMF. Alex started microcredit clubs in boston region schools which peter ryans microloanfoundation has now spread into the eharof MIT and sloan management school who used to sponsor my dad's books, along with te california instituite of contemporary studies that sponsored dad and my 1984 book that predicted the 2010s denoument between one Nobel Microecomist, www youth networkers and a BBC that hasnt yet got its world service SB act together I recall a very clear pledge that 40 londoners made in 2005 to give the olympics back to paris if the BBC doesnt value freedom of speech for sustainability games more than spectator sports. Thank you and john caswell tomorrow for helping keep londoners on that job creation pathway. other ref:Abstracts: Brand Reality editorial. Benchmarking services branding ...
Brand Reality, which has become an increasingly significant concept in marketing, ... author: Macrae, Chris. Publisher: Harcourt Brace & Company Ltd. ... -
PS if anyone in claremont region knows peter farquhar please say hi - helped friends networks  hugely with global brand partnership research back in 1989


Do Nows include:

find out which is te centre uni of Manuel:

Manuel Castells is University Professor and the Wallis Annenberg Chair of Communication Technology and Society at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and Professor of Sociology and director of the Internet Interdisciplinary Institute at the Open University of Catalonia in Barcelona. He is also Professor Emeritus of Sociology and of City & Regional Planning at the University of California, Berkeley, where he taught for 24 years, after being on the faculty of the University of Paris for 12 years.

He is, as well, Distinguished Visiting Professor of Internet Studies at Oxford University, and Distinguished Visiting Professor of Science, Technology and Society at Santa Clara University

Tuesday, January 13, 2015




course info un-enroll 

11:18 am est 

Monday, April 29, 2013

.I love this sort of considered history and system development view of yunus life work- perhaps no where is this done as well by academics as in france

Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orléans - CNRS UMR 6221, Faculty of Law, Economics and Management,

Rue de Blois, BP 6739-45067 Orléans Cedex 2 - France

Tel: 33 (0) 2 38 41 70 37-33 (0) 2 38 49 48 19 - Fax: 33 (0) 2 38 41 73 80

E-mail: -

Document Search

No. 2007-18


The father of microcredit honored by the Nobel Peace ...

Globalization and microfinance

Michel Lelart

Page 2


The father of microcredit honored by the Nobel Peace ...

Michel Lelart


Muhammad Yunus who invented microcredit and the Grameen Bank he founded in

Bangladesh thirty years ago just to get the Nobel Peace ...! The small credit

granted to groups of destitute women proved to be a financial innovation that

contributed to the growing success of microfinance.

Why and how microcredit and microfinance been successful to the point of

practiced today around the world? And what are the reserves and

they do not miss critical to generate?

Keywords: Microcredit, Microfinance, Poverty, Yunus, Grameen Bank.

The Father of Microcredit, Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize ...


Muhammad Yunus, Founder of the Grameen Bank and the Microcredit That he

Established in Bangladesh some thirty years ago, received the Nobel Prize last year for ...

Peace! Granted the small loans to groups of poor women Were Considered a financial

Innovation That Contributed to the success of Microfinance.

What Explains the success of Microcredit and Microfinance to the extend That They Are

Practiced today world-wide? What are Their Shortcomings and the Criticisms leveled against


Keywords: Microcredit, Microfinance, Poverty, Yunus, Grameen Bank.

JEL codes: G 21 - O 17 - O 53

Article in the Journal of Political Economy, No. 117, March-April 2007, p. 197-208.

Michel Lelart, 4 Villaret de Joyeuse, 75017 - PARIS

Tel: 01 43 80 13 74 - email: michel.lelart @

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Thirty years ago there was no talk of microcredit or microfinance or finance

solidarity or informal finance


. One after another, these concepts have found their way

in the economic literature, and they'll probably keep it long. Microcredit

seems particularly well installed. The first Microcredit Summit was held there while

Just ten years in Washington, the last was held in Halifax in November 2006. The UN

decided to make 2005 the Year of Microcredit. And the Bank of Sweden has

to award the Nobel Peace Prize to Muhammad Yunus who is considered the father of

Microcredit, the same time as the Grameen Bank ("village bank") he created

Bangladesh thirty years ago.

This is not the Nobel Prize in Economics Muhammad Yunus received price. Boasting a

Fulbright, the Pakistani student could spend a few years in the United States

study economics. Obtained his Ph.D. he began teaching at various universities

waiting to return to his country became Bangladesh. He returned to

1972 - he was barely more than thirty years - and began teaching economics at the University

Chittagong. It has not published a single work from the economy has been some

impact and have made ​​known


. Yet this Nobel Prize is awarded raises

a lot of interest - and some surprise - among economists. This is Muhammad

Yunus was in the beginning, thirty years ago, a real financial innovation can

change the lives of the poor.

In the village where he lived, near the campus of the university where he began to

teaching, he met a woman who borrowed daily equivalent of 22 cents U.S.

a "professional lender" to buy a bamboo with which she made

stools which it sold its 10% in the evening. She then earned a little more than two

cents a day - at least "good days" - 1.7 euro cents or 11 cents

our old francs


. Realizing that all he had learned in universities

U.S. and now he taught his students was not large compared with life

that led the people around him, he discovers that his village 42 women earn their

life this way by borrowing from moneylenders every morning a total equivalent to 27 dollars. It

decided to pay the $ 27 for the 42 women on his own money, without interest,

without imposing a date for repayment. And as these women can now

sell themselves their stools on the market, they get in much more money,

they make their living much better. They become more independent, they feel, and

they are gradually less poor.

And of course they repay this loan and Yunus can continue to lend,

always poor women who are small solidarity groups (usually five

each time). It manages this activity with students, using his own money, until

- In 1977 - when a banker friend of his assistance to open a bank in his village. Its

students who know something they credit the practice with him,

become managers. A few years later the experience is extended at all


. But there are nearly twenty researchers from North and South began to work together on

informal savings and credit in two opened by the Agence Universitaire networks practices

Francophonie: Entrepreneurship Network ( and the network and Economic Analysis

Development (


. Mr. Yunus published with A.. . PRETTY, a book that has been translated into French Towards a world without poverty -

The autobiography of the "banker to the poor", JC Lattes, 1997. As the name suggests this is the story of

his life.


. Those were replaced by the euro in 2002, not those of 1960!

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region, before being in the country. The story of the Grameen Bank begins.

It now operates in 73,000 villages in Bangladesh, it has seven million

customers of which 97% are women and from the beginning it has affected 80% of families and has

lent six billion dollars. It now lends $ 800 million per year, credit

average is $ 100, unpaid reach just 1%. And we can say that it has

successful with 58% of its customers are out of poverty. It now provides loans

estate, it provides scholarships to students and launched three years ago a

program for beggars whom it lends an average of 12 dollars without interest and

without fixed maturity by encouraging them to exercise a small business. Gradually begging

begins to decline in this country.

The Grameen Bank has not remained in Bangladesh. This innovation could

remain marginal to quickly spread. The experiment was repeated by sixty

countries in Africa and Latin America, it is even now present in Europe.

But it is not reproduced identically, it is always appropriate. And especially it is not

the only way to help the poor, the fight against poverty is accompanied

often of initiatives to facilitate the financing of small businesses or political

for the informal sector. This is why the phenomenon of microcredit exceeds

Now the experience of the Grameen Bank. In any country whatsoever, there is not that

institutions which resemble him.

We will first ask why or how this innovation has succeeded

to be adopted around the world and why it arouses much curiosity. We

then examine the reservations and criticisms that it does not fail to arouse because if the

assessment of microcredit is positive, all the problems are not resolved so far.

Reasons for success

The success of microcredit, and now know Yunus and

Grameen Bank, can not be understood unless it is placed in a broader context.

- On the one hand, the demand side if we can say, is a great need to find a

way to help developing countries effectively. The success in this regard are not

triumphant. Poverty is not ready to absorb, quite the contrary. The Community

international community has recognized the need to take initiatives in this regard. It is

Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) decision by the IMF in 1996 and

based on the development of a Strategy Paper Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP).

This is the new Facility for Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF), which

replaces the old Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF). It is the UN that has made

reduction of the first targets of the Millennium Development Goals poverty. And

However, the official development assistance continues to decline, and banks

International withdrew long. Nationally, it was understood that the

going development by the private sector, especially small and micro-

companies. As the banking industry are not interested in the informal sector,

it lacks a means to finance income-generating activity and reducing poverty. There

has in every village and in every city a "money lender" which gives

loans without collateral, without formalities, without even waiting for the borrower, but we

known rates. They contribute much to extend to reduce poverty ...

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- On the other hand, the supply side this time, there has always been in the South

rather specific financial practices that work well because they

match both the needs, habits, attitudes. We recently known

the existence of African tontiniers repaying the end of the money - we should say

savings - submitted by customers every day, and more often, the refund

before you receive it. Finally tontine whose members pay you well know now

periodically a contribution that is given to one of them in turn. These practices

traditional savings and credit based on a close relationship between

participants. They are very popular in most of Asia and Africa, the

also found in Central America. This informal finance as

call today opposed in many ways to the formal finance: it is the finance

to measure because it is able to constantly innovate to adapt to the increasingly

needs is finance experienced by people who know all and

which it is whenever a human adventure. It is the finance sector.

It is on what ground taken microcredit and it has developed since the first

initiative Yunus at an accelerated pace. It is now practiced in all countries

South, according to a variety of forms. But it is often a collective credit given to groups

women as Bangladesh, support groups such as India, groups

mutual aid and Indonesia: there we find groups that may have to be

during the tontine. And it is always a local credit where the distance between

borrowers and their creditors is never very high, where information is almost perfect, where

money is "hot"


. It is much better suited than bank loans to people

accustomed to informal financial practices, and should be much better than loans

usurious to people with few resources and still fragile.

If innovation Yunus was able to grow as quickly and extend

many countries in the world, it has also gradually changed. This is why

always talk about microcredit, but talk more often about microfinance. Just as we do

Microcredit can understand without referring to informal finance that preceded it

can not understand it better without reference to microfinance exploding today. The

distinction between these two concepts is indeed essential. It illuminates the success of


One difference is that informal finance more concerned

savings. The tontine begins by receiving deposits, it replaces the "guards currency."

Tontines are often seen as a way to force him to pay his dues, that is

means to save. Social pressure is very strong within the group effect. Microcredit

instead puts emphasis on credit ... naturally! But if the credit is first, it is

not just credit. This is why we talk about microfinance.

- On one hand, it is usually accompanied. The woman who borrows from Grameen Bank

not only need money, she often need guidance to use the money

it borrows. Generally the recipient of a microloan may be advisable

to manage a small business to keep its accounts to calculate a cost for

make certain decisions. It may sometimes benefit from training sessions. These


. According to the well-known expression of Guy BEDARD. Hot money is that of relatives, family,

friends and neighbors. The cold hard cash is the government, the foreign banks ... we will reimburse the

first, not the second!

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support services such as: counseling, monitoring, training, coaching is

essential in microcredit. These are such services that make microfinance a finance

proximity ...

- On the other hand, other services, financial those also accompany microcredit.

It is primarily savings, borrowers are encouraged to open an account and pay

a little more certain deadlines. It is also the insurance, which is a guarantee to get

money if for some reason, whenever chance, we needed ... and these are the

poorest who need the security of such. Finally, a new service takes

increasingly important in developing countries, the transfer of money made ​​it difficult for

people who do not have access to banks. It is all of these financial services

that characterize microfinance.

A second difference is that the finance for informal practices

bringing in the presence of persons. This is of direct finance. Microcredit is the contrary

usually provided by an institution. It is the same, of course, the

microfinance, as it is also the time savings, insurance and money transfer.

Do not we talking also of microfinance institutions (MFIs)? We are

Now in indirect finance. And these institutions are very diverse. They were born

local initiatives, such as programs initiated by the government or foreign

such cooperation agencies (AFD, CIDA, USAID ...), organizations

specialized (IRAM, GRET, ACCION ...), international institutions (the Bank

World Bank, the ILO ...). These projects may involve only the credit or the credit link

an action for poor women, unemployed youth, artisans ... and can

affect the health, nutrition, the environment ... They are often run by NGOs

local which may involve more or less in these operations, to enter into relations

with commercial banks to partner with them .... or adopt their status.

This picture is not complete. Indeed missing two kinds of institutions. It lacks

cooperative institutions, located in the South according to the European model (the

Canadian credit unions) (credit unions) or Anglo-Saxon (Credit Unions). A

Originally, they were tasked to fight against wear using savings available

in the village. They have the same mission today in Africa or Asia. It also lacks

commercial banks, as it is to make microcredit, either because they have been created

immediately for this, as in Eastern Europe in recent years, as small

institutions have grown enough to turn up to take this status, as

Latin America.

This means how microfinance is a heterogeneous sector. Not only

institutions that come together have a very different status, but they are distinguished by their

size: one made ​​for six months a few hundred members who

borrowed the equivalent of tens of thousands of euros, some in place for ten

years have tens of thousands of members who have borrowed a few million.

In some countries these institutions are grouped and services are controlled. This is the

Federation of Agricultural Mutual Funds (FECECAM) in Benin which includes funds

agriculture, it is the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) in Indonesia has almost 4000

agencies whose outstanding loans exceed two billion dollars. Both countries are

not only in an institution which dominates. At the international level, 3% of MFIs

80% of customers ...

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You can find everything in microfinance ... This is even more true that meeting

now such institutions in the North. We too are poverty and

it does not shrink. Growing inequalities, unemployment became especially intolerable.

Social exclusion is certainly a marginal phenomenon, it is still a reality, and

difficult to live with, because traditional forms of solidarity, so present in the country

South, no longer exist in the North. It has generated in recent years a number

initiatives. One of the first, and best known, is the Association for the Right to

Economic Initiative (ADIE), founded in December 1988 by Maria Nowak who sought to

adapt the model bank for the poor created by Yunus


. Others followed at

sometimes regional level, and in many neighboring countries ... and even in European countries

Central and Eastern Europe, in particular in post-conflict countries where it is important to give

quickly to each other, the way to return to work. Institutions

Similar thus born in Bosnia and Kosovo. And a European Network

Microfinance was created by ADIE ...

Social exclusion is a double financial exclusion. In industrialized countries the

bank money is by far the most used, the current account does not only

pay by check, it also allows transfers, direct debits,

card payments today ... It is also important to have a bank account that

a phone. Social life is inconceivable without a like without the other.

That is why the law against exclusion of 1998 established the right in France

account along with the basic banking service. And as access to services

banking naturally leads to access to credit, microcredit has finally aim

mainly in the North, to fight against financial exclusion. Programs are

introduced for this purpose by many institutions. Managed in partnership with banks,

they often receive public assistance. This is France's vocation Fund

Social cohesion established in January 2005 at the same time to guarantee repayment of

micro-finance and training support staff.

Microcredit in North ultimately remained at least in principle, similar to what

it is in the South. Northern countries have exported their former finance to developing countries,

but commercial banks have failed to reach the 'modern' sector of the economy.

Southern countries are now exporting their finance to the North where microcredit

achieves the unbanked. The innovation of Yunus ended up having

a truly global impact. However, it raises a number of

problems, it even causes some controversy.

The problems of microcredit

North things are pretty clear. Microcredit is marginal, it concerns

a fringe - fortunately small - population. Organizations, whether

specialized or not, all fall within a legal framework that can be the bank executive or

may have been designed for them. By definition, they are not profitable, or if they are, their

microcredit activity is not. They must have a special financing,


. Mr. Nowak has published is not as rich ready: the microcredit revolution, JC Lattes, 2005. ADIE

willingness in principle 5,000 euros, granted for two years at a rate of 7%. This loan comes with a whole

range of complementary services, both to facilitate the start of the project and to monitor

for accounting, economic, financial ... Three-quarters of people supported by the Association are

outputs of social assistance schemes.

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both to cover the cost of these operations is by nature high, and for

enough "loanable funds" not only to "prime" the credit activity,

but to then develop.

It is not the same in the South. We told how this new sector was limited

homogeneous. The 10,000 institutions that is usually addressed not only

different in status and size. They are also in their performance, and

two ways. They can respond more or less to the needs of their customers, the

quality of their services and the interest rate on their loans. They may also be more

or less well managed, more or less successfully to cover their costs and finance through

themselves. Some became independent in a few years, others disappear

as quickly, the examples in this regard are many. It should be added that some lend themselves to

poor women in other small and medium-sized enterprises operating in one environment

rural, the other urban and in some countries they are regulated in other

yet in some countries they are at the limit of the informal, in others they have

organized within regional or national associations, some have formed

network around a common union or federation support services

eg IT or staff training ...

It is obvious that under these conditions the microfinance sector, which remains an area

extremely young, may be contradictory analyzes and generate

recommendations are equally important. Each other and understand each other better if we

considers that some MFIs rather have a social vocation, others rather

financial vocation. The first come to the rescue of the poor, they are closer to

their customers, they can not operate with subsidies, they can never

be fully integrated into the financial system. The latter seek to maximize their

activity, proximity is relative, of course they work without subsidies, they

practice market rates, they compete, they are already part of the system

Financial. Political authorities can not be the same ... and researchers can

difficult to compare these extremes.

Take the case of social institutions. They are smaller at the same

time the most numerous. The most contentious issue is the impact on poverty.

The answer is not easy. First, poverty is defined not only in relation to

income, it is a much more qualitative concept, which can account for access to water

drinking or school for children, availability of housing, the degree of integration

in the social environment ... It is heavy and complex surveys to determine customer

an institution. Then what matters are the changes. They can be observed in

level of the institution, they are based on the number of clients or the amount of credits

granted. They can be observed at the level of borrowers: they are less

poor, they have managed to create a small business or expand ... and especially in

what extent is it due to the credit that they get and they were able to use good

spent? The answer is not always obvious, even if the survey is based on a

rigorous methodology.

Studies here and there over the last ten years show most often

improving the economic and social situation of the borrowers. Microfinance

certainly have a positive impact. Monographs helped highlight

individual experiences that have been very successful and are all "success

stories. " However, the results are extremely diverse and sometimes contradictory. It is

Page 9


income increases but at the same time household debt, which is autonomy

women increases, but the balance can be compromised within the couple. Even the

Grameen Bank, the record for women is not as positive


. Furthermore, it is now

assumed that MFIs do not lend all systematically poorest of the poor, nor

even the very poor, but the poor less poor. The customer is then

less risky, she needs more credits whose management is less costly ...

MFIs with a social vocation play a role that may be important in some countries or

for certain populations. But the one hand, they contribute to poverty reduction,

they can not hope to eliminate it completely. On the other hand, they can contribute to

development, but they are not the only actors. Microfinance is a solution,

certainly not the solution. Therefore we need to encourage these institutions to give them the

means to act, and therefore accept to subsidize, but not of course without limits or

unconditionally. On the other hand, the states should not expect any of them. Other efforts,

other policies are equally necessary not only for the poorest, but

also in favor of informal sector workers who do not need credit to grow

and to participate more actively in the growth of the economy. Still need to know

take risks and accept ...

Now consider the case of financial institutions vocation. They are less

many, but their activity is less important. Some have become

banks, others are getting close. Their impact on poverty is still discussed, but

yet their integration into the country's financial system, which tends to be "inclusive", that is,

ie to include institutions that meet the financial needs of the whole

population. These microfinance institutions are not subsidized must

finance themselves. They do it in different ways. Some negotiating a

partnership with commercial banks, which can in this way be involved in the

microcredit. Some open accounts to their customers to encourage them to save.

So they can finance their loans, at least in part, by their deposits. Some

still appeal to the market by issuing bonds as they do already in America

Latin and began to make in several African countries. They can also strengthen their

capital by issuing shares that may subscribe donors

traditional and social investors.

Such autonomy was reached by the Grameen Bank happens to any grant

since 1995 and whose own resources added to deposits currently account

143% of its outstanding loans. But the case of Grameen is special, if that

its history and the media in which it was subject before the Nobel Prize. The

Microfinance can not borrow the market channels and enter a commercial logic

to several conditions. Institutions can not compete with each other and

banks if a suitable regulatory framework is established in advance, which is the case

in a growing number of countries. Their management should be transparent and respectful of

"Good practices", only able to guarantee the quality of their services at the same

time a slow and gradual decline in interest rates charged. There will always be

However, a fundamental difference between these institutions and commercial banks,


. An article in the International Centre for Local Credit Mutuel is quite critical in this regard, as well as

"Counterparties" that is the acceptance of a kind of moral code and respect for each meeting of a rite based

of 26 commandments. Development without solidarity: The Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, Technical

financial and development, No. 62-63, June 2001, p. 26-35.

Page 10


unless the former do end up adopting the status of seconds they open

current accounts are currency, so they can create money as

their credits are their deposits. Not so with the micro finance is not by itself

same ...

As the purpose of these financial institutions is confirmed and strengthened,

other problems arise, in particular, that of governance. How is exercised

power in each institution? As they become more professional, these institutions

interest to remain fairly close to their customers, because microcredit is a local credit,

Money should not be too cold ... And it is not always easy to reconcile the technical

growing of these operations, as any financial transaction with the involvement

desired customers, including through the elected institutions such

cooperative. It is not always easy either for leaders to manage the institution in

sole interest of its customers, current and future. Finally, when the institution becomes independent, its

value represents a capital return to shareholders ... But who are the

shareholders? The NGO took the initiative, donors who funded the State

who sponsored the debtors whose benefit the institution was created, depositors

which are not necessarily the same ...? A Grameen Bank, 6% of the capital belongs to

state, 94% to customers ... that is to say to the poor.

In conclusion

This distinction - social vocation, financial vocation - is a little sketchy, because

share some extreme cases most institutions try to reconcile these two

dimensions. But it helps to better understand the challenges posed by these MFIs. The same

we find everything in microfinance today, it is difficult to predict it

will be in twenty years Qu'aura she did for poverty? The institutions be

become profitable? What will be their contribution to development? Will they happen

absorb the informal sector? Will they have their place in every country in the system

Financial ...?

For now success is exemplary, it is that of the Grameen Bank. The bank

not only become profitable and self-fact, it is not

only extended to the level of a whole country before being copied by sixty other.

It has reduced poverty in a very poor country, helping more people

disadvantaged and marginalized to improve their living conditions, and beyond, to

find a real confidence in themselves along with a certain dignity. And

This is because the Nobel Committee believed that the reduction of poverty can contribute

peace in the world that Mr. Yunus and the bank he imagined thirty years ago were

honored this year. The Committee had considered that the promotion of human rights,

the spread of democracy, respect for the environment, may have the same

influence. In making this choice this year, it does not require us to take only

aware of the extent of poverty in the world, it helps to reduce the gap between

the West and Islam, at the same time it emphasizes the importance of women's role in

economy and beyond, in society




. See speech of the Chairman of the Nobel Committee before presenting the award to Mr. Yunus.

Page 11


But for economists, the Nobel Peace associated with microcredit has merit

very special. It opens our eyes to the diversity of methods and systems

funding between countries, especially those between North and South, but also

the importance of behavior and therefore men who are at the heart of life

economy since they are the key players. The Nobel Prize is not saving

reminds us especially, and how masterful way that economics is a

social science, and what we call "the economy" can be, and therefore should

be at the service of men.

Some recent references:

ARMENDARIZ of AGHION B. and J. Morduch, The Economics of Microfinance, MIT

Press 2005.

S. BOYES, J. Hajdenberg POURSAT and C. (Eds), Guide to the Microfinance -

microcredit and savings for development, Editions d'Organisation, 2006.


Microfinance in Asia: between tradition and innovation, IRD-Karthala, 2005.

GUERIN I. and BEARING J. (Eds), Microfinance Challenges: Empowerment or

Disempowerment of the Poor? French Institute of Pondicherry, 2005.

D. Hulme and P. Mosley, Finance against Poverty, 2 vols., Routledge, New York, 1996


LABIE M., microfinance issues - Limits and organizational choices, Ed Luc Pire,

Brussels, 1999.

LEDJERWOOD J., Microfinance Handbook - An institutional and financial perspective

World Bank, Washington, 1998.

Lelart M. (eds.), Informal Finance and Development Financing, AUF and Data Sheets

Arab world, Beirut, 2000.

Lelart M. From the informal microfinance finance, AUF and Editions Archives

Contemporary, Paris, 2006.

Mourji F., B. DECALUWE PLANE and P. (Eds) The development to poverty, AUF

and Oxford University Press, 2005.

MS Robinson, The Microfinance Revolution - Sustainable Finance for the Poor, Bank

World, 2001.

RUTHERFORD S., How the poor manage their money, GRET-Karthala, 2002.

SCHNEIDER H. (Ed.), Microfinance for the poor OECD, Paris 1997.

Page 12


SERVET JM, Bankers barefoot - Microfinance, Odile Jacob, 2006.

SOULAMA S., Microfinance, poverty and development, and AUF Editions Archives

Contemporary, Paris, 2005.

Mr. Zeller and RL Meyer, The Triangle of Microfinance Financial Sustainability,

Outreach and Impact, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2002.

Several journals have devoted a special issue to microfinance:

Developing Worlds, published by De Boeck in Brussels: No. 119, September 2002

No. 126, June 2004.

Revue Tiers Monde, published by PUF: No. 172, December 2002.

Financial and Technical Development, published by savings without border: No. 59-60,

October 2000, 70 and 73 March and December 2003, No. 78, March 2005.

There are also often articles about microfinance in Savings and Development

(Finafrica, Milan), in World Development (Elsevier), the Journal of Development

Economics ...

Page 13


Globalization and microfinance

Michel Lelart


These two concepts have a priori nothing in common. They can however be compared.

The one and the other are not really new has recently exploded in the '80s,

and microfinance quickly became like globalization that is naturally

an international phenomenon. The Nobel Peace Prize is a striking proof.

These two concepts are not strangers to one another. Microfinance can

be seen as a reaction to globalization. It makes it possible to mitigate

some impact on the poorest people, and if it can not be used

as a new policy, at least it can support certain policies


Keywords: microfinance - microfinance - globalization - development

Globalisation and Microfinance


Altho thesis two concepts have, a priori, nothing in common, They can nevertheless

Compared be.

Both concepts, All which Have Been known for some time, Have recently taken off, in the

80s, and microfinance HAS Rapidly Become, like globalization Itself, international year

phenomenon, as Witnessed by the Nobel Peace Prize Awarded in 2006.

Moreover's, thesis two concepts are not unrelated. Microfinance can be Considered as a

reaction to globalization to the extent That The form is used to offset some of the effects of

the lathing on The Most Disadvantaged groups in the world, and if microfinance cannot be used

as a new policy instrument, it can at least be used to Accompany some development policies.

JEL Code: F O2 - 017

Paper presented at the "Symposium Globalization and Development", University of Annaba

(Algeria), September 2007.

Page 14


Globalization and microfinance

Globalization and microfinance, that although two concepts, a priori, have little

in common. One could say that both of them lend themselves to interpretations

different. Globalization can affect the operation of multinational firms or

mean another organization of harmonious relationships between states become less influential

national level. Between firms and states, between business management and relationships

Cities, other agents and other areas are also affected. Similarly, the

microfinance is practiced by institutions varied status in favor of officers who have

have different needs. This concept again is often difficult to grasp.

But the overall impression is still that if these two concepts raise a

and the other a lot of questions, they are fundamentally different. Globalization is

an international phenomenon in nature, since it concerns relations between states or

rather between agents belonging to different states, while microfinance is a

local phenomenon that thrives in a much smaller space in which the actors are

people who usually know. Globalization is thus a

global phenomenon that extends to all areas of the economy, and not just those;

microfinance for finance, and if it can extend beyond savings and

credit, however, the field remains limited and well defined. Globalization feeds

competition extended to the international level, so that microfinance does not prohibit

competition between institutions, but it creates a degree of complementarity between

these institutions and the traditional financial institutions. Globalization is

naturally to improve the profitability of economic activity, based microfinance

more on solidarity, which introduces a social dimension. Globalization

is accompanied by the deregulation that facilitates the development of trade and the flow

capital, the development of microfinance necessitates regulation of

institutions. Finally, globalization and microfinance each concern all countries, but

the first is more the case in the North, the second concerns more countries

South, the first still has implications for developing countries, the second extends

Now the North.

The opposition between the two concepts appears sharp and determined. And yet the

similarities abound. On the one hand, we will show that they have two

common dimensions: time, because these phenomena have recently exploded all

two, in space, because microfinance has internationalized, and therefore closer to the

globalization that is naturally. On the other hand, these two phenomena are not without

relations. Microfinance can appear both as a response to globalization

which can mitigate some of the effects, and as a new development tool that deserves

to be taken into account in the policy states.

I. The analogies between globalization and microfinance

These two concepts are very distant from each other, many aspects between them, and

strongly. And yet, one can discern some similarities. Their analysis will

better define what microfinance because it is not the theme of this symposium

Page 15


on globalization. We will position ourselves successively in time and


1. The explosion of globalization and microfinance

The origin of globalization is not obvious. As it is a process, and

is more of a natural process after all, it is not easy to determine the beginning .. It

can be traced back to the early exploits of the browsers that will make possible the

trade or, 300 years later, industrialization will make it necessary to

development. But it is much closer to us than globalization a date

really exploded with the freedom of trade, with the emergence of multinational firms,

with financial globalization, with migration ... as with the development of

tourism, or dizzy and constant communication progress. These

factors are all steps have made ​​globalization a complex phenomenon that

is not easy to define


And not more dated. At least we can say that it has taken

important that we know today as the last few decades.

The history of microfinance is not so different. Its origin, too, is

difficult to determine. Could be traced back to the establishment of the first cooperatives

credit at the end of XIX


(Desjardins in Canada Raiffessen Germany ...). Could

even back to the beginning of the last century with the creation of "banking for the poor." And

why not go back in the South to the arrival of the currency. For since

long lends money and takes in a group, between members who all

know who are in turn debtors and creditors, or vice versa. Tontines

are practiced everywhere and in some African countries have replaced the tontine

guards currency. We called these financial practices, which are based on relationships

narrow personal, informal finance. This is a finance sector, it is mainly the

direct finance in which debtors and creditors are in direct contact.

It is in this soil that microfinance has taken, there is a good ten years. But

this time a radical change has taken place. The transition from one concept to the other takes

effectively meaningless. Microfinance is still, of course, a matter of debt

and receivables, but this time the debtors and creditors are no longer face to face, they

cater to an institution - the microfinance institution. Microfinance is the

indirect funding that will remain the finance sector, but will no longer be as

naturally. In addition, while in the informal finance savings is essential, in

microfinance is credit that is - micro-credit - and it is associated with other services

institutions can offer the same time saving course, but also insurance,

money transfer and other so-called "support" services to help and

advise the borrower.

There is always, as in globalization, some continuity, especially as

some microfinance institutions already existed when we spoke only of finance

informal. So it was mutual or cooperative savings and credit are

often the largest MFIs which have been established in Africa, for example, from


. It is even whether globalization "would not ultimately a word tote is

corresponding to reality ... "(Baudrand and Henry, 2006).

Page 16


the aftermath of the last war. Support programs for certain sectors

some trades, some populations are long, as well as NGOs

which often interested in credit. But this time there is a real break, which can be

place around 1995, when the concept of microfinance has appeared in the literature


. The

reasons for this are well known: it is primarily the failure of development policies, taking

awareness of poverty and the continued success of the now well-known innovation

Yunus (Lelart 2006 and 2007a). From that date the microfinance really too

exploded. Around new institutions are created, the number of customers

increases, the volume of their operations, especially credit provided, increases

quickly. And yet it is qualitatively and quantitatively that microfinance

grows and she is talking about her. It is mainly about her, and more,

because it is international.

2. The internationalization of microfinance

Unlike globalization, microfinance is not a phenomenon

international in nature. But she has become, as it has developed real

"Global dimension" (Gentil and Servet, 2002). This was done in several ways.

Microfinance primarily concerns all countries, because in all countries there is a

need small loans, and credit accompanied by advice or supplemented by

assistance. In all countries, people who can not access banks need

use of financial services that are tailored to their needs. Institutions found

microfinance in developing countries, are also found in Eastern Europe since the

countries are open to the market economy, they are also found in Northern countries

also experience poverty, unemployment, exclusion. The model of the Grameen Bank

invented by Mr. Yunus was adopted - and adapted - by 85 countries including France ... including

ADIE Maria Nowak. But this model is not the only one, and many institutions are born

isolated initiatives.

Microfinance has also gradually organized. Associations

professional were created at the national level, as in Benin and Madagascar. In the

most countries regulations have been adopted, which gives better visibility

"Microfinance". This sector necessarily interacts with the

banking sector. The two often form partnerships that may cause actual

cooperation. It even happens that banks, including large international banks,

engage in microcredit ... because globalization has intensified competition in

banking (Littlefield and Rosenberg, 2004). Organized in this way in each

countries, microfinance sectors have relationships beyond their borders. It

are now regional microfinance associations in West Africa, the

Maghreb, the Arab world, for all of Africa, for Western Europe ... There are

even an international association of leading microfinance institutions


. All this


. The first title is, to our knowledge, that a book dedicated to the World Bank

"Microfinance institutions" in West Africa (Webster and Fidler, 1995). The concept is not far

emerge ...


. Institutions located in several countries may even form a network if they are the same

type, or if they are funded in the same way. This is the case of Credit Agencies for Private Enterprise

(CAPE) present in Senegal, Cameroon, Madagascar. We may also mention the Regional Bank

Page 17


allows the publication of aggregate statistics and facilitates the exchange of information, as

common actions. Microfinance knows no boundaries.

And is supported by international institutions. These are NGOs or

national cooperation agencies involved in several countries. These are funds

international investment as Oixocrédit, ACCION, Triads, Calmeadow the

SIDI ... It is also the regional development banks and the World Bank

that hosts the well known CGAP, which played a key role in the development and

formalization of these sectors (Boye, 2006, page 258)


. These are the states themselves

undertake to support microcredit programs in developing countries. They are also

in the framework of the European Union which has its own development policy .. Finally,

rating agencies issue opinions on the creditworthiness of institutions and the risks

they represent. These international agencies can intervene anywhere in the world, and

the cost of the evaluation requested by an institution is usually supported at

least partially, by the donors who are usually strangers.

Finally, microfinance has become a concern of the Community

international. The first Global Microcredit Summit held in New York in 1997

helped launch a campaign against poverty. Other peaks followed, interspersed

regional summits. The discussions addressed gradually the diversity of situations

and complexity of the problems (Guerin, 2002). What size given the media in these

meetings have attracted growing interest. The member states of the G8 have endorsed their side

eleven key principles established by CGAP microfinance to the Summit

Gleneagles in June of 2004. The UN has decided to make 2005 the International Year of

microcredit. That year President Chirac held in Paris on June 22 a day

which brought together 600 international experts. A new Microcredit Summit was held in

Halifax in 2006. And at the end of that year, Mhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank is

shared the Nobel Prize ... not the economy, although it is credit and finance,

but of peace.

Thus, microfinance has become in recent years a worldwide phenomenon.

It therefore forms a natural way in the globalization process. One can even

say that it is a part, at least we can see it as a response to the


II. The relationship between microfinance and globalization

Microfinance can be seen as a response to globalization. In

hand, considering the past, it can help to mitigate some of the consequences

painful for the most vulnerable populations. On the other hand, considering the future, it

appears to be a new development tool that can create a new policy

the States: it may well come at once to the rescue of globalization, or it


Established in 2005 in each UEMOA solidarity or proposed Confederation movements

African Credit Mutuel.


. Donors supporting microfinance subject of a chapter in the book of Boye et al,

2006, p. 253-280, see also Servet, 2006, p.. 244-247.

Page 18


1. Microfinance to the rescue of globalization

Globalization raises very opposite judgments. Some see it as a factor

growth which requires countries developing or in transition to integrate

the global economy and allows some of them to gradually reduce the gap that

between industrialized countries. Others consider it instead of a responsible

accentuation of this gap and increasing marginalization of some countries that are

"Forgotten" of globalization. See especially the first benefits of this phenomenon,

the latter rather see its drawbacks. But beyond these differences are also

ideological, and some others are probably right. Globalization is not the same

consequences for Vietnam and Bulgaria for the Niger and Colombia. And if it is

favorable to growth, it is not anywhere as much or in the same way. Inequalities

tend to widen between rich and poor countries and between rich and

poor in each country. Thus in reinforcing inequality globalization

tends to make the poor poorer (Hugon, 2000; Nicolas, 2002).

Some projections from the World Bank show a significant decrease

poverty in the world by 2015, together with an increase also

sensitive in sub-Saharan Africa. The population living on less than one dollar a day

expected to decrease by 35% and 15% increase (Cling et al, 2003, page 31)



While 50% of the world population lives on less than two dollars a day, and

than a billion people live on less than a dollar, reducing poverty

became almost naturally "a major international duty" (Camdessus, 2001). It

became the first of the Millennium Development Goals and it is taken into

account by international institutions. The IMF and World Bank agreed in 1996

debt reduction for heavily indebted poor countries. They then made ​​it a condition that the

countries develop a Strategy Paper Poverty Reduction (DSRR) which requires

allocate the funds released by the non-repayment of its debt to public spending

likely to reduce poverty, especially in the field of education and

health. This condition is then imposed on countries wishing to use the new

Facility for Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF).

But how to reduce poverty? Several policies are possible. We can give

money to the poor who do not. They can also help to do something and

undertake "an income-generating activity." This is where microfinance. The

PRSP focus mainly on education and health plan often

measures for microfinance. It may be the establishment of a legal framework,

strengthening the capacity of institutions, improving governance, development

establishment of a fund to support and guarantee policy ... This is facilitated by

NGO intervention are requested to actively participate in the PRSP process,

as they often play a very real and important role in providing

microcredit to poor people. We can say that because of globalization, they

can now influence public policy development (Vielajus,



. Taking into account the increase in population during this period, the percentage of the actual

population decrease of 45% in the world and only 16% in sub-Saharan Africa ...

Page 19


The governments also use this policy themselves. In Benin

example, a microcredit program for the poorest (MCPP) was launched in February 2007.

With 6 billion CFA francs (€ 9 million), it will allow institutions

microfinance to extend credit 30,000 CFA (45 euros) to 200,000 poor families

to help develop "income generating activities" (Lelart, 2007b). If we

added activities of national cooperation agencies and specialized agencies, the

Microfinance is now at the heart of the fight to reduce poverty in the world



It is even more than microfinance institutions also grant services

insurance, allowing to cover certain risks faced by their users, and they are

the poorest who are most vulnerable and most in need of such services the most. And

is finally because poverty often creates financial but also social exclusion.

One can even say in this regard that microfinance is invested by the authorities

public, the duty to respond to situations of exclusion that can be caused by

globalization (Gentil and Servet, 2002).

But this is not because microfinance is increasingly used for this purpose as

effectively reduces poverty. The problem of the impact remains highly controversial. It is not

easy to measure poverty, as it appears more as a qualitative concept. It

is not easy to measure its progress and isolate a precise way the impact of

credit granted. Moreover, it seems clear now that microfinance is not the most

poorest of the poor, so it takes them to another policy. The dominant impression is

however, if its impact can not be measured exactly and it is only positive for

fraction of the beneficiaries of microfinance contributes to poverty reduction. The institutions

are not all equally effective as the Grameen Bank, but the overall balance is positive,

although some would like it to be more.

It is also because microcredit is not a social vocation. When it is

given to poor women, it should enable them to exercise a "generating activity

income. " It has at the same time an economic purpose, which becomes dominant

if the recipient is a business. We can consider that it is rather a support


2. Microfinance support globalization

Rather some microfinance institutions have a social vocation. These are the most

many, along with the smaller ones. Others have more of a financial vocation.

They are less numerous, but their activity is significantly higher. Some

is even closer to banks, both the volume and the operations

relationships they have with one of them (Lelart, 2007)


. Simply include PADME

and PAPME to Benin, Senegal CAPE or Madagascar ... These are the institutions that


. Another example is the use of some U.S. funding allocated to a fund called "Millennium

Challenge Account "(MCA). For priority sectors of education and health, they are also

used in Benin for example, to improve access to financial services by helping institutions

microfinance. This includes help to equip, train their staff, to refinance their loans ...


. Not to mention the extreme cases where MFIs have become real commercial banks, as

Latin America, or when banks have opened a window "microcredit" and have engaged in this

new activity, as in some African countries and Asia.

Page 20


provide financing for small and medium enterprises which banks are reluctant

much to lend. These companies have a natural vocation to grow - that's why

they have to borrow - and thus to diversify their production, to seek

partnerships, gradually developing their trade to seek more capital ...

This is how they will fit into the mainstream gradually the

globalization. Because it is primarily the result of companies, which are the primary agents.

It can also refer to micro-enterprises, which usually characterize the sector

informal. They can hardly take the banking sector, so they are the client

more diligent microfinance


. They are designed not only to grow, but more

yet to transform and integrate gradually Seteur modern economy. It is difficult

measure the impact of microfinance on economic activity in a country, but it is

any positive evidence. Thus, in facilitating the emergence and development

competitive enterprises, microfinance promotes long-term integration of the country into


She has another impact, probably more important. Globalization is often

criticized, sometimes vehemently, because it raises many concerns. It is

including fear of a certain cultural uniformity that would result, it is

fear that local or even national cultures can be preserved (Naudet,

2003). There is indeed a risk that the current director of the IMF underscores when

calls "to pay more attention to the social dimension of globalization"

(Kohler, 2004). Is it not precisely the advantage of microfinance to preserve this

dimension? Institutions are seeking more profitability, and sustainability that

accompanies it, but they usually try to stay a community finance. The

users are often involved in the life of the institution, they know, they sometimes grouped

committing to borrow jointly. The services are always tailored to

needs of each other. Microfinance strives to remain a personal finance

wherein users are found easily.

It is in this sense that it creates social integration (Dembinski and Bonvin, 2003). It is

why it is necessary, in countries that have always had this way of pay and

to borrow money from people who know, to accompany the

globalization. To the extent that it allows the same time fight against poverty,

it is a natural part of the "social dimension" that is required by the adaptation of

countries at different stages of globalization and is largely left to NGOs

(Levy 2001). We know precisely what role they play in supporting initiatives

microfinance or even more direct involvement in these operations.

This social mission of microfinance is also reflected in its natural ability to

to support the relationships between people, we say today to build social capital,

which we know is an important factor in the growth as well-being (and Baudassé

Montalieu, 2007) and that its absence is a key determinant of poverty, as

the absence of physical or monetary capital (Cling et al, 2003, page 36).

But globalization is not just about the flow of goods or

capital, it is also about migration. The movement of people often

an economic reason, they are linked to the search for a more profitable business within a


. It is always difficult to have statistics. We know that Central and Latin America, for example,

micro-enterprises received only 0.5% of bank loans as they contributed 20% of GDP.

(Iglesias, 2001).

Page 21


countries, but even between two countries, including North and South. And we know the importance

This growing phenomenon in recent years. It implies the need to send

money. In the North banks provide this service, efficiently and free.

In the South slightly banked, and between these countries and those of the North must

organize these transfers. Some transfer companies provide this service, the best known is

Western Union, present in all the cities of the world. But other institutions

Specialized do as well as some microfinance institutions, when

authorized to do so. They can not do them directly because they are not

connected to a clearing house, but when they have an account in a bank

commercial, compensation can be made ​​by it


. All MFIs

do not offer such services. But because these transfers are of a financial nature and

North insured by banks, these services are included in microfinance is

requested by the migrants and therefore, once again, due to globalization.

It is for all these reasons, because microfinance promotes the development of

small businesses, because it facilitates social integration, because it meets certain

needs of migrants, that accompanies the process of globalization. This is why

national microfinance policy has now its place in national policies

development that reflect primarily the specificity of each country.


Microfinance has its place in development policy. It does not have all

instead. Some realism follows the craze started, when it was thought, a little

too fast, they found the way to make microcredit people out of poverty and

countries underdevelopment. We now know that microfinance is not a panacea

and it does not exclude the need for many other policies. But it still raises

controversy ... as globalization.

Globalization is not foreign to some state decisions, such as

deregulation, but the states are not directly involved. Printing

dominant would rather that globalization tends to reduce their role, particularly in favor of

multinationals. firms But voices often rise to hope that beyond

regulatory functions it performs naturally, the state retains a regulatory function and

make sure that globalization serves the interests of the greatest number. This is the

so that the States are and should remain involved in globalization.

Their role in microfinance is also much discussed. As it is a

relatively new phenomenon, and as it comes to offering services in many ways

essential to a large portion of the population, the state is directly involved and

is a great temptation for him to get into this sector by creating institutions, the

financing, giving himself credit ... But if he can - or even should - subsidize


. Transfers are also informally or by agencies that are not always allowed either

by conventional procedures, such as hawala, usually run by merchants (El Qorchi,


Page 22


sometimes, its role should be limited to a pulse and set the rules to be

respect the institutions.

Enough state in globalization, not too much state in microfinance. These

controversies are really ideological. Globalization is a good thing for

supporters of the market that does not want to upset her, it is harmful to others

looking for ways to oppose it. Microfinance in itself does not raise

critics, but some prefer a commercial approach with profitable institutions

and perennial, others favor a safe approach with institutions serving

poorest and subsidized whenever necessary. Muhammad Yunus, whose

Grameen Bank became for many years a profitable institution, does it not stand

at the same time globalization that seems more beneficial to the poor themselves

the alternatives that some would prefer it?



Reconciliations we tried to do and the relationships we have

identified do not prevent globalization and microfinance are two concepts well

different, and they are, in many ways, completely opposite ...


GERMAN S., microfinance is no longer a utopia, other Editions, Paris, 2007.

BAUDASSE T. MONTALIEU and T. The assumption of social capital: an application to the

finance and development Revue Tiers Monde, No. 190, July-August 2007, pp.1-19.

BAUDRAND V. HENRY and GM Globalization Studyrama, Paris, 2006.

BOYE S., J. Hajdenberg and POURSAT C., Guide to the Microfinance - Microfinance and

savings for development, Editions d'Organisation, Paris, 2006.

Mr. Camdessus, the reduction of poverty in the world: an international duty?

Moral report on the money in the world in 2001, Association for Financial Economics

(AEF), Paris, 2001, p. 97-104.


the fight against international poverty 2


edition, Economica, Paris, 2003.

DEMBINSKI BONVIN PH and JM Finance: between trust and exclusion Morale Report

the money in the world in 2002, AEF, Paris 2003, p. 389-395.

EL Qorchi M., Hawala: how this informal funds transfer system works,?

Finance and Development, December 2002, p. 31-33.

FROGER G. (Eds.), Globalization against sustainable development, Presses

European Interuniversity, Brussels, 2006.


. Cf. his acceptance speech after the awarding of the Nobel Price December 10, 2006.

Page 23


Gendron C. and G. Bourque, Responsible finance in the era of globalization

Economic, Political Economy, No. 18, April 2003, p. 50-61.

NICE D. and SERVET JM, Between "localism" and "globalization": Microfinance

as a developer and as a lever of social and economic changes, Revue Tiers Monde,

No. 172, December 2002, p. 737-760.

GUERIN I., Global Microcredit summit: where are we after five years, review

Third World, No. 172, December 2002, p. 867-871.

OUT M. The conditions for sustainable development, Development and Globalization,

French books, No. 310, Documentation French, Paris, October 2002, p. 25-30.

P. Hugon, The revival of development economics in the context of

globalization, in G. FROGER (ed.), op. cit., p. 29-52.

IGLESIAS EV, Building social cohesion through market activities

financial in Latin America and the Caribbean, Report on Moral money in the world

2001 AEF, Paris, 2001, p. 243-249.

Köhler H., Towards a Better Globalization, Moral Report on money in the world

in 2003-2004, AEF, Paris, 2004, p. 189-199.

Lelart Mr. De informal finance to microfinance, Agence Universitaire de la

Francophonie and Editions of Contemporary Archives, Paris, 2006.

Lelart M., father of microcredit honored by the Nobel Peace ..., Review

of Political Economy, vol. 117, March-April 2007 (a), p. 197-208.

Lelart M. Mutations in microfinance - The experience of Benin, Laboratory

Economics of Orleans, Search Workbook 2007 (b) - 15 May 2007.

Mr. LEVY, fight against poverty, reducing inequality and vulnerability assessment of

action "on the ground", in G. WINTER (eds.), Inequality and Public Policy in Africa -

Multiple standards and sets of actors, Karthala-IRD, Paris, 2001, p. 85-100.

E. Littlefield and R. Rosenberg, Microfinance and the Poor - The demarcation

between microfinance and financial sector fades, Finance & Development, June

2004, p. 38-40.

MICHALET CA, What is globalization?, La Découverte, Paris, 2004.

NAUDET JY, Globalization and ethical trade Morale Report on money in the

world in 2002, AEF, Paris, 2003, p. 277-281.

NICOLAS F. Developing countries: Unity and Diversity, Development and

globalization, French Cahiers, No. 310, Documentation French, Paris, October 2002, p.


Page 24


NOWAK M. It is ready (not) to the rich - the microcredit revolution, JC Lattes,

Paris, 2005.

SERVET JM, Bankers barefoot - Microfinance, Odile Jacob, Paris, 2006.


9:39 am edt 

Saturday, December 11, 2010

France to support Yunus on social business

Nobel Laureate, Boutin present report on social dimension of globalisation

to Sarkozy

UNB, Dhaka


Former Housing Minister of France Christine Boutin and Nobel Laureate Professor Muhammad Yunus presented the interim report on the social dimension of globalisation to French President Nicolas Sarkozy at an official ceremony at Elysee Palace on Thursday.

They briefed the president on the French action plan on the social front during French Presidency of G20 summit next year, a release of the Yunus Centre said yesterday.

Christine Boutin presented her interim report on the social dimension of globalisation to Sarkozy in presence of Professor Muhammad Yunus. The head of state had commissioned this report to Boutin in December 2009, in the framework of the French presidency of the G20 Summit.

Sarkozy paid tribute to the work of Muhammad Yunus, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006, and the contribution of the Grameen Bank and microcredit in the fight against poverty.

The president also assured France's support to his work, which aims to develop “social business”, in the actions of the international community at the service of development.

Proposals included in Boutin's report are echo back to two pillars of the French presidency: food safety, which will be key on the agenda for the development of the G20 and corporate social responsibility.

Sarkozy also thanked Boutin for her comprehensive work, and emphasised that the social aspect of globalisation would be at the heart of the French presidency of the G20.

4:50 am est 

Sunday, March 7, 2010

yunus entrepreneurial revolution at Grand Rex 4 Feb 2010
3000 youth questioned Yunus and a worldiwde cast of sustainability leaders including Frank Riboud CEO Danone, Frederick Dalsace Social Business Chair HEC, the French Minister for Youth & Employement Martin Hirsch - Liberation brought out a special issue on Yunus sustainability leader of the epoch. The event was led by the extraordinay new media movement DanoneCommunities
who invite youth and job creation social businesses to co-create Generation Solidaire

network co-sponsors included Verteego (carbon), Tremplin (jobs for the handicapped), l'AFD (Development Agency), Junior Communication Celsa (junior enterprise celsa ad agency), EtreBienAuTravail (all the keys for healthy work), Envie d'Agir (youth projects), Débarquement Jeunes (youth celebrated in nuit de trophees), Youphil, X Microfinance, Wiser earth, Web pedagogique, Tremplin, Solidaires du monde, Skema, SIFE, Rdv des jeunes, ParisTech, Nos quartiers ont des talents, Net Impact ESSEC, Mozaik RH, Mouvement pour la Terre et l'Humanisme, Lycée Michelet, Libération, La Ruche, Izi-collect, Internet Sans Frontières, Initiative & Changement, IMS Entreprendre pour la Cité, Groupe SOS, Green Drinks, Gemalto, France Active, Finansol, ESCP Europe, ESC Grenoble, Entrepreneurs Sans Frontières, EICD 3A,, Dolce Vita, Crédit Coopératif, Coup de Pouce Humanitaire, Comundi, BNP Paribas, Babyloan, Ashoka, Arpejeh, Apec, African Business Club, ADIVE, ADIE, 8 le film, be-linked, 1001 fontaines, RockCorps.
8:31 am est 

Friday, March 5, 2010

Please help us catlaogue frane's funders of SB and micro initiatives
Grameen Credit Agricole

Micro Initiatives
Air Liquide
1:38 pm est 

usa booktour 1 13 january 2008
booktour2 isexpected to start june 2010- we are prepping resourecs at - tell us if you need a stage or a link info

Creating a World Without Poverty—Interview with Muhammad Yunus

Posted on February 6, 2008 - 1:49pm :: Good News | ISD-World Affairs | Economics
January 13, 2008 | National Public Radio

TF! Editorial Comment: Since winning the Nobel Peace Prize, Muhammad Yunus has garnered even greater media attention for his pioneering work in microfinance. While many others have now taken up this idea and innovated on the Grameen approach, Yunus remains an important voice in the effort to eradicate poverty. In the interview below, Yunus shares an inspiring story of working to create a social business.

All Things Considered, • Muhammad Yunus' ideas about lending to the poor have changed lives in his native Bangladesh and beyond.

Known as the "banker to the poor," Yunus, winner of the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize, has helped people rise above poverty by giving them small, usually unsecured loans through his Grameen Bank.

Now Yunus has written about his next big idea in Creating a World Without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism. He calls his vision "social business" — a model where entrepreneurs can apply their creative, social and altruistic vision to the world's most pressing problems, such as poverty and homelessness.

Through Grameen Bank, Yunus has applied this altruistic business model to his own work. The bank has set up several companies, including Grameen Telecom — in partnership with the Norwegian phone company Telenor — and Grameen Danone, a partnership with French food and beverage maker Danone.

The businesses don't depend on contributions — they aim at self-sufficiency, and expand depending on how much they make. Yunus describes the challenges and triumphs of creating and maintaining these business models in some of the poorest areas in the world.

Andrea Seabrook spoke with Yunus about social business, its impact and challenges.

(Go to the NPR site to listen to the interview)

Excerpt: 'Creating a World Without Poverty'

Prologue: Starting With a Handshake

Because the microcredit organization I founded, Grameen Bank, has successfully brought financial services to poor women in Bangladesh, I am often invited to speak with groups that are interested in improving the lot of women. In October 2005, I was scheduled to attend one such conference in the French resort town of Deauville, ninety miles northwest of Paris. I would also be visiting Paris to deliver a lecture at HEC, one of the leading business schools in Europe, where they would honor me with the position of Professor Honoris Causa.

A few days before my trip to France, the coordinator of my schedule in Paris received a message from the office of Franck Riboud, the chairman and CEO of Groupe Danone, a large French corporation (whose American brand name is Dannon). The message read: M. Riboud has heard about the work of Professor Yunus in Bangladesh, and he would like very much like to meet him. Since he will be traveling to Deauville shortly, would it be possible for him to have lunch with M. Riboud in Paris?

I am always happy to meet with people interested in my work in general, and in microcredit in particular, especially if they can help in the battle to alleviate and ultimately eliminate global poverty. The chairman of a major multinational corporation would certainly be worth talking to. But I was not sure whether the proposed meeting could be accommodated in my already packed schedule. I told my coordinator that if we could find the time, I would be happy to see M. Riboud.

Don't worry, I was told. The Danone people will make all the arrangements, take you to lunch, and then make sure you're delivered to the HEC campus in plenty of time. So on October 12, I found myself being whisked from Orly airport

in a limousine provided by the Danone corporation to La Fontaine Gaillon, a Parisian restaurant recently opened by the actor Gerard Depardieu, where M. Riboud was waiting for me. He'd brought along seven of his colleagues — important executives in charge of various aspects of Danone's global business: Jean Laurent, a member of the board of Danone; Philippe-Loic Jacob, general secretary of Groupe Danone; and Jerome Tubiana, facilitator of Dream Projects in Danone. Also present was Dr. Benedicte Faivre-Tavignot, professor at HEC in charge of their MBA program in sustainable development.

I was ushered into a private room where I was greeted in a very friendly fashion, served a fine French meal, and invited to tell the group about our work.

I quickly discovered that Franck Riboud and his colleagues were well aware of the work of Grameen Bank. They knew we had helped launch the global movement called microcredit, which helps poor people by offering them small, collateral-free loans—often as little as the equivalent of thirty to forty U.S. dollars — to use in starting tiny businesses. Access to capital, even on a tiny scale, can have a transforming effect on human lives. Over time, many of the poor are able to use the small stake that a microloan provides as the basis for building a thriving business — a tiny farm, a craft workshop, a little store — that can lift them and their families out of poverty. In fact, in the thirty-one years since I began lending money to poor people — especially women — millions of families in Bangladesh alone have improved their economic circumstances with the help of microcredit.

I described to M. Riboud and his colleagues how microcredit has spread to many countries, especially in the developing world, through thousands of microcredit institutions launched by nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and business entrepreneurs seeking to emulate the success of Grameen. "In fact," I told him, "by the end of next year, we hope to announce at the Microcredit Global Summit that 100 million poor people around the world have been the beneficiaries of microcredit — this movement that started from nothing just a few decades ago." (When the summit was held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in November 2006, we could say that we had in fact reached that goal. We have now set even more ambitious targets for the next ten years, including the most important one: To assist 500 million people around the world in escaping poverty with the help of microcredit.)

Finally, I began to relate how Grameen Bank had expanded its activities into many new areas, all designed to help the poor. We'd launched special lending programs to help poor people pay for housing and higher education. We'd created a program to lend money to beggars, which had already helped free thousands from the necessity to beg and had demonstrated that even the poorest of the poor could be considered "credit-worthy." And we'd developed a series of businesses — some operated on a profit-making basis, some as nonprofits — that were improving economic opportunities for the poor in many other ways. They ranged from bringing telephone and Internet communication services into thousands of remote villages to helping traditional weavers bring their products to market. In these ways, I said, the Grameen idea was reaching more and more families and communities every year.

Once I had completed my brief history of Grameen's progress, I paused and invited Franck Riboud to tell me why he had asked me to lunch. "Now it is your turn," I said, "I've heard of your corporation, but I understand it is not operating in Bangladesh. So tell me something about Groupe Danone."

"I am happy to do so," he replied.

Franck told me about the origins of his corporation. Groupe Danone is one of the world leaders in dairy products; its Danone brand yogurt (known as Dannon in the U.S.) is popular throughout Europe, North America, and in other countries. Danone is also number two in bottled water and biscuits (cookies and crackers) in the world. "This Evian water," Franck said, holding up a blue bottle, "is a Danone product." I'd seen and drunk Evian water in hotels and restaurants around the world. Now I knew a little about the corporation behind the brand.

"This is very interesting," I commented, but I was still at a loss to know what high-end mineral water or yogurt that would be considered luxury products in Bangladesh could have to do with me or Grameen Bank. Franck was ready with an answer. "Danone is an important source of food in many regions of the world. That includes some of the developing nations where hunger is a serious problem. We have major businesses in Brazil, in Indonesia, and in China. Recently we have expanded into India. In fact, more than forty percent of our business is in developing markets.

"We don't want to sell our products only to the well-off people in those countries. We would like to find ways to help feed the poor. It is part of our company's historic commitment to being socially innovative and progressive, which dates back thirty-five years to the work of my father, Antoine Riboud.

"Perhaps this background explains why I asked for this meeting, Professor Yunus. We thought that a man and an organization that have used creative thinking to help so many of the poor might have an idea or two for Groupe Danone."

I had no specific idea what Franck Riboud was looking for. But I could feel he was interested in everything I'd told him so far. Additionally, for some time, I'd been thinking a lot about the role of business in helping the world's poor. Other economic sectors — the volunteer, charitable, and nongovernmental sectors, for instance — devote a great deal of time and energy to dealing with poverty and its consequences. But business — the most financially innovative and efficient sector of all — has no direct mechanism to apply its practices to the goal of eliminating poverty.

The work of Grameen Bank and its sister companies had helped to bring millions of people into the local, regional, and world economies, enabling them to participate in markets, earn money, and support themselves and their families. It seemed to me that there were many opportunities for other kinds of businesses to bring similar benefits to the poor. So when, over lunch in a fine Paris restaurant, one such opportunity seemed to be presenting itself, I decided to seize it if I could.

It was a spur-of-the-moment impulse, not the kind of carefully planned business proposal that most executives prefer. But over the years, I've found that some of my best projects have been started, not on the basis of rigorous prior analysis and planning, but simply from an impulse that says, "Here is a chance to do something good."

I made a suggestion to Franck and his colleagues: "As you know, the people of Bangladesh are some of the poorest in the world. Malnutrition is a terrible problem, especially among children. It leads to awful health consequences as the children grow up.

"Your company is a leading producer of nutritious foods. What would you think about creating a joint venture to bring some of your products to the villages of Bangladesh? We could create a company that we own together and call it Grameen Danone. It could manufacture healthful foods that will improve the diet of rural Bangladeshis — especially the children. If the products were sold at a low price, we could make a real difference in the lives of millions of people."

I was about to learn that Franck Riboud, CEO of one of the world's best-known companies, could be just as impulsive as a "banker to the poor" from Bangladesh. He rose from his chair at the opposite side of the table from me, reached toward me, and extended his hand. "Let's do it," he said, and we shook hands.

I was as elated as I was incredulous. "Can this really be happening so quickly?" I wondered. "What have we agreed to do here? Perhaps he doesn't understand my Bangladeshi accent." We sat back down, and I decided I'd better make sure that Franck knew what he was getting himself — and his company — into.

"Maybe I haven't been quite clear," I said gently. "I am proposing a new company, a joint venture between your company and Grameen. I am calling it Grameen Danone, with our name, Grameen, to come first, since it is better known in Bangladesh than yours."

Franck nodded. "No, I got it!" he assured me. "Your plan is quite clear to me. I shook hands with you because you told me that, in Grameen Bank, you rely on mutual trust between the bank and the borrowers, making loans on the basis of a handshake rather than legal papers. So I am following your system. We shook hands, and as far as I am concerned, the deal is final."

I was pleased and excited by Franck's response. Then I told him something else. "I am not done with my proposal yet. Our joint venture will be a social business."

This time he looked a bit puzzled, as though he had heard a phrase that he could not immediately translate. "A social business? What is that?"

"It's a business designed to meet a social goal. In this case, the goal is to improve the nutrition of poor families in the villages of Bangladesh. A social business is a business that pays no dividends. It sells products at prices that make it self-sustaining. The owners of the company can get back the amount they've invested in the company over a period of time, but no profit is paid to investors in the form of dividends. Instead, any profit made stays in the business — to finance expansion, to create new products or services, and to do more good for the world.

"This is an idea of my own — something I've been thinking about for a long time. I believe that many kinds of enterprises can be created as social businesses in order to serve the poor. I've been looking for a chance to put the idea into practice. We've already made a beginning in Bangladesh, setting up eye-care hospitals as social businesses. But Grameen Danone will be a powerful new example of the idea — that is, if you agree."

Franck smiled. "This is extremely interesting," he said. He stood up again, extended his hand toward me across the table. I stood up and reached for his hand. As we shook hands, he said, "Let's do it."

I was so stunned, even more convinced that my ears were deceiving me, that, a couple of hours later, on the road to the HEC campus, I quickly sent Franck an email. In it, I summarized my understanding of our discussion and asked him to confirm, clarify, or correct my impressions. If he was seriously pledging himself to create the world's first multinational social business as a partnership between Grameen and Danone, I wanted to make sure he understood what was involved. And if there had been some confusion between us — or if he had simply had second thoughts, or been dissuaded by his colleagues — I wanted to give him an opportunity to say "no" quickly and easily, with no hard feelings.

But Franck and his team at Danone were fully committed to the project. While I was at HEC, I received a call from Emmanuel Faber, the chief of Danone's operation in Asia. Franck had mentioned Emmanuel during our meeting, explaining that he would be the logical person to direct Danone's end of our joint project. Now Emmanuel called from his Shanghai office. "Professor Yunus," he told me, "I am thrilled that a concrete idea has emerged from your lunch. I'm looking forward to meeting you and talking about the project. Meanwhile, please send me your initial thoughts about it." I promised I would.

Not only were Franck Riboud and Danone committed to the project, they wanted to move ahead at a rapid pace to make our new business into a reality. I discovered this during the whirlwind of the next several months, as Groupe Danone and Grameen worked together to create something new under the sun: the world's very first consciously designed multinational social business.

Listen to the interview on the NPR site.

Internet Source:
10:44 am est 

2015.01.01 | 2013.04.01 | 2010.12.01 | 2010.03.01

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