Breaking News Spring 2015 IN which trillion dollar markets can france and grameeHEC free purpose of Muhammad Yunus and Sustainability Millennials?
Italy and Spain, France leads what goodwill Europeans spread with Catholic Culture- and
Pope Francis is very clear how anti-youth (and errant) macroeconomics and the EU has come. Markets that are not audit around
Preferential Option Poorest are not sustainable- nor are politicians who fail to value their
main regulatory purpose as ending inequality.Whats stopping the miillennials generation in France leading national and global
debates on this rather than waiting for rowing politicians who are never entrepreneurially ahead of sustainability's
intergenerational exponentials. After all French enlightenment coined the word entrepreneur- because what entrepreneurs value
most is almost exactly the opposite of the politician. We trust
that is as embedded in the french version of these words as it is obvious to your auld ally the scots || Can we link YOUTH DIARIES OF SOCIAL BUSINESS 2005-2015 & #2030now|
PARIS calling Millennials www
Nutrition and all food value chains security - grameen partnerships with danone and credit agricole could have
linkedin worldwide millennials interested in celebrating these markets sustainability
Waste, Energy - Veolia
and Schneider Partnerships couid have led worldwide millennials transformations of these markets
the UN has called 2015
and the transformation form millennial goals the biggest in its history - and paris hosts at least 2 seminar 2015 events:
septembers convergences 2015
december UN climate sustainability summit
Paris' main branch of the UN is :UNESCO; /juːˈnɛskoʊ/) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN). Its purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education,
science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights Does UNESCO see 2015 in same way as UN-the year of facilitating
biggest change in its existence. The Ted Turner family (who made their money mediating with CNN) ave invested over a billion
dollars in making UK partnering wings more accessible to millennials turning impossible
to possible. Their final review of the success of this takes place in Atlanta November 2015 with tens of thousands of youth and over 20 Nobel peace laureates. Will French millennials be well represented
|............................................................................Changing every anti-youth
economic (job destroying) policy of European Union- |
How the most vital university missing curriculum needed to be the opposite of the MBA .
HECk Isnt it time that all entrepreneurs united collaboratively in asking what are we teaching wrongly about innovation
that the net generation needed to mediate differently
from the industrial age if sustainability let alone end poverty were to be real
goals not greenwashing
| .............................................................................................................................................................................................Developing investment
funding in most sustainable future purpose of each of these and other trillion dollar markets?|
At grameen.tv we ask youth
to compare which future capitals are twinning most with millennials sustainable futures- back in 2005 France/Paris launched
a world lead on this with Youth and Yunus -where
is it today?
Lets assume starting with 2005 meetings with Yunus at HEC - you
agree that France was way ahead in inviting joyful millennials debate on one or all of the above critical markets purposes
-over time what caused the impact to be less than it could have been?
Are there urgent and mobilising
ways empowering 1 2 millennials
to get back to lead these social business orbits?
| || || || || |
welcome to http://grameenfrance.com - a research project sponsired by family of The Economist's
pro-youth economist Norman Macrae;
with 10000 youth we started this tv web in 2005 to understand from 20 interviews with yunus and inside grameen bank:
how to share massive youth job creation and women empowerment around the planet -coming soon The GG World Record Book of Job Creation
Dear GrameenItaly.com we used to think of yunus millennials and italy : in terms of nobel peace summits 1 2 and how The Pope and Muslims action, learn, and open sourc poverty ending networks with each othere but since
#2015now we hope you are happy to be merged with grameenfrance firstname.lastname@example.org we will be inviting rest of grameeneurope to union in similar mode
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?v=10152947449632247 what would you like to be a yunus alumni of? which are top 10 curricula to
make as nearly free to school as possible if race to poverty museum is to be united with youth by 2030? http://worldcitizen.tvhttps://www.facebook.com/groups/drmuhammadyunusfanclub/permalink/10155069014665641/
Breaking News Chinese new year of goat- Déjà plus de 10 000
inscrits ! A vous de jouer !https://www.coursera.org/course/entrepchangement
in 2011 annual general meeting of
danone we circulated 400 first issues of journal of social business at same time as 300 issues circulated by results to congress
at 2010 general meeting of danone
borje and I spent day at hec with faivre tavignot and dalsace we were told about the reality of the 2005 lunch where brainstorming
facilitated by emmanuel faber and faivre-tavignot
emerged global social business idea around yunus, riboud and ceos of credit
agricole and veolia, and sarkozi's top economics researchers and france's most famous of public servant of the poorest
- the french ad intended this to
be mother of all collaboratoin benchmarking between sustainable corporations as well as their prototype public find for social
business and a way of engaging the eu which at that time had a frenchman in charge of banking reforms wo was later to try
to speak at convergences2012 as well as host eu social business summit 3 days after queen sofia microcreditsummit
not just a yunus jamboree- they
were therefore upset when yunus university partnerships were linked with lowest universities across usa and europe something
they could not explain to their colleagues as being a basis for developing one leading smba course something sarkozi actually
made a pillar of his economic strategy which e tried to colaunch with stiglitz review of everything that had gone wrong wit
macroeconomics april 2008
nov 2008 glasgow university adam smith scholars proposed rewriting smith and yunus and got backing of principal of glasgow
university only to find yunus decided to chase a chancellorship with one of the lowest ranked glaswegian university - this
didnt help make the change economic and big banking argument that needed to be got through to obama and clinton early 2008
-the subject of my fathers last writings for and with yunus- and as for scottish youth they lost independence from europe all thanks to not listening to people like tom huntre
and gordon brown and prince charles who had been loudest supports of yunus The PM and Muhammad Yunus - creating a world without poverty
as for what ans did next to destroy europes youth and yunus- i will leave that to history
chris macrae www.grameenfrance.com usa hotline 240 316 8157
Envie d'avoir un impact social positif dans la société?
Proposé par Ticket For Change et HEC Paris, ce cours en ligne totalement gratuit vous accompagne pendant 7 semaines
pour vous apprendre comment passer de l'envie à l'idée puis de l'idée à l'action.
des contenus académiques issus de l'expertise des enseignants d'HEC et des témoignages concrets de pionniers
tels que Muhammad Yunus, Emmanuel Faber ou encore Pierre Rabhi, ce MOOC a pour ambition de vous permettre de trouver votre voie d'acteur de changement.
Déjà plus de 10 000 inscrits ! A vous
de jouer !
ow Millennials race to end poverty and sustainability = race to free top 10 missing curricula
of sustainability - but which are they?
Community Health Training...
Joy of Peace- Uni of Stars.
|Mobile women4empowerment infrastructure leapfroging - 10 times lower cost mobile partners for poor in 1996
-what's #2015now ...||Feed and water the future for everyone....||...|
|banking for jobs...||....||...||....|
| || || || || || || ||...||...||...||...|
Bernardo do you know anyone at Sapienza University in Rome
My dream in next 4 weeks - host a meeting in
Rome between Sapienza and Nobal Peace Laureate Summit orgnanisers
Sapienza starts a On-Demand Mooc with those Nobel Peace Laureates who have something they want millennials to know how to
On-demand MOOCs have these advantages - they are there 24/7; they
are valued for what actions or collaborative goodwill they viralise not one standardised personal certificate; they can be
assembled piecewise and iteratively. This would allow Nobel Laureate summit secretariat in Rome to be continuously responsible
for impact on millennials of nobel peace laureates and someone from Vatican to keep an eye on how this may blend with Pope
Since Jim Kim at world bank wants millennials to be most connected
, educated, collaborative our race has ever nurtured e has already had one mutual exchange with Pope Fracis so Sapienza and
World Bank who are already registered as Coursera providers could help maximise impacts on public servants accountability
Also I guess that the 5 billion person elearning
satellite yazmi.com would be happy to freely advertise what nobel laureates sub-curriculum are already showing
At some stage we can then try and match nobel laureates with which social
business or global social value cases they like best from your partnering universities - and in cases where a Nobel laureate
is passed like Mandela or Wangari Maathai presumably a small specialist editorial board (eg mandela elders in case of mandela)
could be invited to help
If we could start doing this now we could then
ask the additional hosts of Atlanta in Nov 2015 like the billion dollar investment by ted turner family in transformational
partners of UN to get involved or those who today most typify turning luther king dreams into actions
of course there are also some particular cases your university circle might
now be checking with HEC and www.grameenfrance.com . the idea of global social business partnering have emerged in 2005 from the dreams of Benedicte Faivre-Tavignot cootrdinator
of sustainability curricula at HEC and Emmanuel Faber director of sustianability and i believe number 2 to Franck Riboud at
Grameen France News Update - France origin in 2005 of the Global Grameen
Corporate Social Business Model for Partners in pro-youth market sectors - leading in purpose of value chains of milk GrameenDanone
, water GrameenVeolia, authorized social business funds GrameenCreditAgricole & DanoneCommunities, first chair of social
business at HEC rsvp email@example.com if you have links to other market sectors that France is a pro-youth world leading partner in
help us show why france merits being in a top
10 worldwide tour of exploring youth, yunus and grameen being prepared in 12 minute modular forms as part of the MOOCyunus
| fall 2012 as any reader of The
Economist's Entrepreneurial Revolution 1 2 since 1972 knows: the sustainability of the net generation
was always likely to depend on the purpose for which the first trillion dollar global social brand partnership is designed. French leaders are helping this to make 2010s youth's most productive time leveraging million times more collaboration technology than when man raced to the moon in the 1960s. The microeconomic way
ahead celebrates investing in youth's millennium goal impacts through every global village network - see examples such as
Riboud at Danone, Hirsch at Civic Society, Nowak at ADIE - please rsvp firstname.lastname@example.org to collaborate in sharing more links on who's who of creating the
next 3 billion jobs worthy of the net generation.And bravo too for Paris now epicentre of the world's greatest millenium goal
summit http://www.convergences2015.org/ with 5000 participants september 2012.|
online library of norman macrae - The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant
Click pics below: download free Journal of Social Business
-suggest future content here
Franck Riboud- 200/7 leaders of 2010s -youth's most productive generation
Role - Europe's Number 1 Partner in Entrepreneurial Revolution
What would world miss without Franck Riboud?.......................................
Riboud - and his sustainability investment advisers at Danone and HEC - Dr Muhammad Yunus would not have found a global brand leader prepared to put billions of dollars of goodwill into Yunus 3rd Entrepreneurial
Revolution: -the launch of global social business partnerships. Launched in 2005, ER3 aims to linkin danone with yunus/grameen brand architecture as youth world's favorite mission-maker. This can be achieved by celebrating good new
media and learning how to joyfully question how to free the pro-youth future of every global market relevant to millennium
goal races . Yunus calls these the poverty museum race and the SB stockmarket win-win-win game > Yes we can invest in ending
poverty and empowering the net generation as youth's most productive time
World ER firsts include; paris world champion of social business; danone communities SB fund; danone communities portal; world's first social business professorship; making entrepreneur the favorite economic construct of the net generation in
France and beyond!; the most exciting infant nutritional product that 21st C China has co-invented
lead other extraordinary french partners might not have formed around yunus: grameen credit agricole's 2 funds; veolia's water ecology partnerships; schneiders support of the second million of solar units installed by grameen energy; renault's new partnership in the social future of auto
Next youth collaboration
How can we help America's and Europe's leaders of Entrepreneurial Revolution invite ceos into a mother of all benchmarking
Europe will be the first region to collapse in the sub-prime trap wall street spun out to the world unless
we urgently stage a pro-youth future review of every market sector and adapt every economical franchise that youth jobscompetitions are waving round the world
Moreover, how can we help youth mediate CONVERGENCES such as:
Paris is now the
epicentre of the world's number 1 millennium goals summit http://www.convergences2015.org/
Paris is also the epicentre of Europe's saftest banking model for investing in youth - see Maria Nowak
How can we link in future of universities to SMBA first planned as a partnership vehicle in sustaining pro-youth
futures by HEC's Benedict Faivre-Tavignot
NB - iss interesting to connect the nutrition stories of western and eastern world's greatest Entrepreneurial
Revolutionaries. Yunus. first non-banking line extension involved nutrition for infants c. 1980; nutrition has from birth
flowed through the corporate purposes of both Danone and Whole Foods. It is also nutrition that is at the heart of transformation
of USAID beyond aid and the flagship private-public partnerships intended to be celebrated by http://www.feedthefuture.gov/. How do we make sure youth is involved in mediating all such partherships?
Norman Macrae Foundation http://www.yclub100.com/ next actions
Help us to complete the dots in the greatest celebrations of Entrepreneurual Revolution since 1976
1976.1 The Economist launches the genre of ER to promote youth-economics necessary for coming net generation to be most productive time to be alive
starts testing investment banking for world's poorest communities instructed by village mothers collaboration wishes to invest
in their next generation
1982.1 Norman Macrae and The Economist launch valuation map of service economics-
teams , franchises are pivotal processes in valuing how productiuvely human lifetimes can serve community needs. This
makes all industrial age past MBA constructs suspect at best. Two years later any ER can see why the 21st C world will need
to be saved from old professions wherever they dont fully value goodwill, trust, joy, emotional intelligence, transparent
conflict resoluton, ending risk comounding at boundaries in the coming borderless world.
1984 Norman published
first book valuing the net generation and inviting worldwide entrepreneurs to join in the race to help net generation co-create 3 billion jobs
Macrae launches http://www.worldclassbrands.tv/ for media professionals who want to do good with media and http://www.valuetrue.com/ for professionals who want to do good with metrics by studying multi-win models
1996 Yunus launches ER2 - how can youth and 100000 grameen village hubs mobilise web tech to bring down degrees
of separation on actioning any life critical information -consequence grameenphone is bangladesh's most valued corporation
and a generation of bangaldeshi youth are world leaders in mobile tech
Hirsch- 400/1 leaders of 2010s -youth's most productive generation
Role - Designer of the most vocationally interesting Civil Service
would world miss without Martin Hirsch
Can you find a civil service that cares more practically about the
vocational experience it gives youth than France's Service Civique
Hirsch appears to have converged his whole
career including past posts as minister of youth and poverty alleviation towards maximising partnerships and pride in service-civique
in such a way that every youth mission is an action learning experienceBetween 2008-2011, Martin has taken at least 25 French companies over to Dhaka to experience
what Yunus means by social business
What youth collaboration challenges is Hirsch centre of
and get Yunus to sit down with Hirsch for half an hour and discuss whether yunus format of student sb competitions (see
jobscompetitions) and martin Hirsch's of civil service could become more than their parts. Both celebrate making youth central to leadership
partnering programs that pulls on resources that often not made available to youth even though they are public.
Norman Macrae Foundation www.yclub100.com next actions
Try and find someone to write up the impacts of Hirsch's societal entrepreneurial projects
in English. The whole world needs to learn from them and they can make prime time content for journal of social business and
youth economics. In some ways they represent the most exciting - and large scale partnership - between governement and youth
that I have seen - do rsvp email@example.com if you have seen other exemplars
5:13 pm edt
200/6 leaders of 2010s -youth's most productive generation
FREEMARKET Role - Europe's banking movement for the unemployed
What would world miss without
Any community in Europe wanting to start up a bank that helps put youth back to work is best advised to seek maria nowak's advice first
1. She is a Polish_Parisian economist who has been working over 3 decades to integrate what financial services non-banks are allowed to offer in each
of the different european nations - her benchmark loans to end unemployment network started in france at www.adie.org but her knowledge supports project jasmine networks across europe from poland to france- and several of her associates also
help connect the banks with values network Global Alliance – For Banking on Values www.gabv.org/You +1'd
this publicly. Independent banks delivering
sustainable development for unserved people.
Next youth collaboration challenges
EU hosted 2 belated summits end of 2011 admitting that the last chance of getting youth back to work depends on meshing 2 mechanisms:
Searches of what
social solutions microentrepreneurs can replicate as community-grounded franchises
the last untapped source of credits through what is called social impact bonds; unless maria's open knowledge networking are
linked by EU to the financial wizards negotiation hundreds of billions dollars worth of bonds from foundations, there is little
likelihood of europe escaping the longest -and most unnecessary -recession ever
maria is currently spending a lot
of time in Tunisia helping entrepreneurs with its micrloan foundations
Norman Macrae Foundation www.yclub100.com next actions
While its a blow that many nations wont let non-banks offer saving products, the most important
dynamic investing in getting youth back to work across europe involves replicating community-owned franchises -ie once person
has found out to use a practice market to get started as a microentrepreneur, share that knowledge with any other in-network
unemployed youth capable of serving that expertise
q&a to help accelerate wider understanding of adie
such include:2 what sorts of peer to peer jobs networks are most numerous across all adie investments
poland has one
of the strongest economies in europe relative to where it was 20 years ago -what can we learn from its community banks and
is dad's polish friend jan winiecki still alive or who are his alumni given my fathers support of him as much the most sensible
person to transition ex soviet economies -
1:13 pm edt
Yunus- 100/1 leaders of 2010s -youth's most productive generation
FREEMARKET Role - ACTION LEADER of 50 Most
Exciting Concepts Youth Have Ever Dreame of Collaboratively Realising
What would world miss without Yunus
Yunus is globally most recognised as number 1 pro-youth economist and innovator of the most purposeful goals peoples can invest in. Yunus has noticed that western economists excluded society's
most vital demands from every performance measure they compute- a very serious error given Keynes finding that increasing
the world is ruled only by economics (ie nations and so youth's future sustainability doesn't exist separately from what global
Historically Yunus' greatest innovations include:
Creating investment banks around 8 million
of the world's poorest village mothers
Making their number 1 investment the ending of digital divides
with everything that can be mobilised across 100000 village hubs of microentrepreneurs;It turns out that the best banks for ending poverty are also the best banks for youth job creation
Helping Bangladesh youth be a leader in mobile technology's
most purposeful uses, and sharing Asia's greatest sustainability solutions every community needs to freely replicate
collaboration challenges is Yunus centre of
After 20 of my own interviews with dr Yunus (and another 20 by
people sponsored by NM foundation as we circulated Yunus 2000 bookclub and 10000 dvd club) I have compiled a top 50 challenges
that Yunus is looking for particular citizens and youth to originate and then share. He also wants a share in all the value
this created to be invested back in his 8 million village mothers next entrepreneurial revolutions
The right hand column shows Norman Macrae foundations next collaboration actions around Yunus top 50chalenges. We
compile ideas on what different cities could help Yunus lead at http://yunuscity.ning.com we welcome correspondence if you
have ideas on how to help Yunus as one of top 100 leaders connecting net generation as the most productive time for youth
to be alive
Please note at least 2 more of NM top 100 are Bangladeshi. However
due to hostile politics we don't currently publish their goals.
Also please note more detailed cases are published in Journal of Social Business whose launch with 3000 leaders
of Dr Yunus choice we committed to within 3 months of Norman's parting as our family's main commitment at Yunus weekend Scotland
4 July 2010
Norman Macrae Foundation www.yclub100.com next actions
latest mailbag on fall 2012 actions on how to help youth and yunus link together the net generation's 50 most productive projects than can
benefit from youthworldbanking.com
Y1 next meet 28 September 2012: Our family in Washington Washington DC is seeing if this capital can stage one of largest student entrepreneur competitions thru 2012-13 - current world leader Tokyo 12000 live youth competition; we also welcome opportunities to connect judge panels of all youth entrepreneur competitions
Y2 Paris September week 2 - we aim to
co-host various NM remembrance parties during the number 1 millennium goals summit www.convergences2015.org
4th quarter - we are looking
to host remembrance parties with Japan and Chinese leaders of Norman's economic maps of Asia pacific century published in
The Economist from 1975 on
Tell us yours next actions rsvp firstname.lastname@example.org
role of honor
the economist and microgreen's number 1 philanthropic network
2 S.African Mandela partners in virtually free university
education coordinated around Taddy Blecher
3 Japan Embassy in Asia celebrating Bangladesh's first 40 years
of revolutions in sustainability economics and grassroots networking
Help with shared diarues of yunus collaborations at http://yunuscity.ning.com and http://leadersandyunus.ning.com
link-billion green (eg solar biogas zero waste designs ) jobs www.grameengreen,com ; billion colaboration tech jobs www.egrameen.com ; billion community jobs (eg health education peace job-creating banks) www.globalgrameen.com - with norman macrae's (The Economist's) 1984 3 billion job compass for celebrating net generation productivity and millennium
goal demands pictured below
sharing Yunus' 13 greatest gifts to peoples and planet -discuss
13 made charity sustainable, and
aid bottom-up and wholly collaborative
12 demonstrated greatest sustainable investment club owned by
world's poorest mothers -and economics lesson 101: no place or nation can grow unless capital taken from family's
savings is invested in next generations productivity
11 clarified best privatization model promising the return
to affordable (e)government and brilliant public service and borderless infrastructures
10 put youth at centre
of exploring how net generation can be 10 times more produtive
by giving the entrepreneurial purpose of education back to youth
the valuation of media (and heroines) back to discovering and championing solutions to most life critical of needs
cracked entrepreneurial revolution challenge (The Economist 1976)- how each global market sector can be feed to value its
greatest multi-win purpose by partners in transparent mapmaking
7 showed business and society models for
scaling most exciting service franchises as community-owned and open sourced'
6 inspired the greatest experiments ever
envisioned with mobile tech and grassroots networks of innovation hubs
5 made the peoples
active participation in millennium goal possibilities joyfully cross-cultural and accessible worldwide (ie both local and
global staged). This includes the 170 year-long goal of economic journalism: end youth being born into hunger/poverty.
empowered human beings to breakthrough all the crises of compound risk and opportunity that von neumann had foreseen as our
generation's responsibility for all future generations
3 restored the hippocratic oaths of economists and rule-making
professional monopolies whom keynes, einstein, gandhi and montessori had foreseen as the greatest
system8ic risk to the sustainability of our children's children everywhere
2 inspired 360 degree viewpoints on how
uniting round girl power always offers peaceful escape routes even to the most fearsome hotspots that big brotherdom
1 helped youth and leaders collaborate in making the next 3 billion jobs -see www.yunus10000.com
please contribute to the atlas! http://yunuscity.ning.com email@example.com wash dc 1 301 881 1655 june 2012
Healthcare –end nurseless village – free nursing colleges
Education – virtually free university movements- student jobs competitions-
understand where future of jobs come from – least source is passing exams
Connect most resourced universities tech advance with
universities nearest to most urgent societal labs (eg MIT & Alabama)
Knowhow tech –whole story of borderless youth economies 84-24 but order of
play matters – invest in youth 5000 networks whose collaboration can sustain worldwide
growth faster than elder 5000 nets can destroy sustainability; map 3 billion jobs creation
and link to youth co-producing most exciting millennium goals
Mass media –vital role of bbc and public media- vital role of future
Safety, Peace – needs cross-cultural
youth facilitation in every community-
move over from biggest nation employer armed forces to biggest = civic service
food, nutrition – celebrate that both community banks and
health start with nutrition community investments – value why paris-HEC sustainability net chose most important first global cluster of
solar and photosynthesis energy – and total higher quality value chain of agriculture and clean- and impacts on peace as solar is a distributed source
2012: Join us at facebook as we complete 40 years of Entrepreneurial Revolution research on how to co-create the net generation's next 3 billion jobs- final cases being prepared for this book on why economics
either destroys or designs the futures that youth want most.
KEYNES ECONOMICS DESIGNS OR DESTROYS FUTURES
THAT PEOPLES WANT MOST
of youth economics
1 Places cant grow if capital (family savings)
not invested in next gen’s productivity
2 World trade as such doesn’t
impact human race’s growth – energy and tech does
Revolution debate hosted by economist since 1972 on grounds of energy and tech- net generation
greatest growth or destruction of worldwide increase in productivity of human lifetimes
4 value Japan multi-win models of economics- knowledge multiplies value in use unlike industrial age consuming up things
Services –action learn from investment banking in youth
Cashless banking –community first franchises
Advance prep world debates on Tech changes Value Chain – youth and community
End government –led bubbles –currency,
property, any big vested interest not pro-youth
Trillion dollar audits of
unseen wealth’s exponentials (up & down) pop by mass media and digital media
Over 20 years ago Norman Macrae helped formed an ER club, which also became the genre "world class
brands", for media practioners that believed it is possible to multiply goodwill (instead of badwill) around the world with media.
WORLD CLASS LEADERS PURPOSES
simplest exercise we invite your collaboration is to brand charter is visions of each markets purpose when designed round what people most want -and trust- from that market's most knowledgeable
doers and connectors
media - our favorite charter by an entrepreneur in media revolves round designing
content (stimulus) "to take part in a severe contest between intelligence which presses forward, and an unworthy
timid ignorance obstructing our progress"
education - at times of great change (early 20h C Gandhi
& Montessori, early 21st C why not every educator and parent ) -prioritise providing youth structures to joyfully
create jobs or maximise how their unique lifetimes can generate income by applying community-grounded franchises serving each other- and
never to see examanitaion of old facts as an end in itself
an advanced exercise becomes converging 2 or more market's
purposes- do you have a good enough wording of the purpose of education and media for the net generation to celebrate? we'd
love to celebrate it here :...
Inviting publishers of
pro-youth economics: the idea is rising with journal of social business and our associates including pro-youth projects of
The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant: why not turn whole planet into a sector by sector charter of how to value that sector's free market so as to create more youth jobs everywhere as well as optimally contributing to the race to poverty museums? Abed (72), Yunus (76), Macrae (84).. - if you agree in investing in net generation to co-produce this goal , send your name
to firstname.lastname@example.org and a link dating when you first valued this goal
The Future' Economies by Youth's Most Valued Professional Mapmaker - What can you first Linkin to with the Joy of Being Free
to Produce (source Nobel Peace Prize 2006)We Create What We Want.
We wanted to go
to the moon, so we went there.
achieve what we want to achieve.
accept that poverty is part of human destiny. It’s not!
We believe we can
create a poverty-free world.
to invent ways to change our perspective.
We can reconfigure our world if we can
reconfigure our mindset. .
will be a new kind of business, making a difference in the world.
are a wonderful creation embodied with limitless human qualities and capabilities.
Entrepreneurs are not one-dimensional human beings, dedicated to maximizing profit.
They are multi-dimensional: political, emotional,
social, spiritual, environmental.
The desire to do great things for the world can
be a powerful driving force
Young people dream about creating a perfect world of
Social business will give them a challenge to make a difference by using
their creative talent.
Let us join
hands to unleash our energy and creativity.
we can create a poverty-free world.”
The other way involves a little mathematics to map out multi-win models -which we discuss
here. However one technical issue comes top. Its understanding compound impacts. Let's say that you double your productivity
or reaching your life's most exciting goal every 8 years- that means over a lifetime of 40 years you can 2*2*2*2*2*2= 32 times multiply growth or progress your greatest goal. How much growth do you need to attain each year to do that - just 9.1%.
When banks or others responsible for peoples intergenerational savings reward people for aiming at excess of 9% annual returns
they are behaving in ways that are statistically bound to destroy the future of the place your children live in. Conversely
just because some errant bankers may have bankrupted your place that does not mean that right now that place's youth should
be imprisoned from developing the great possibilities of the net generation. If german , swiss , american banking or politicians
say youth anywhere should be deprived of the net generation's unprecdented access to million times more collaboration productivity
than when man raced to moon in the 1960s then they are not only disatrously wrong economically but they haven't learnt from
history what causes wars between nations. And in this era of ever increasing human interconnectvity causing such aggression
to spiral will probably end human sustainability even faster than man's current war with nature over climate!
turns out that there is little chance of the human race working on futures our childrens most need unless enough people, of
every diversity and practical context, take charge of mediating what economics rules. And there are two ways for people to
humanise media including old broadcast and new interaction. The simplest way , which everyone can do with joy, is vision a
future that matters most to you and your peers and identify a leader who is inviting everyone who trusts each other to make
that future happen. This web believes in hunting out 100 leaders who want 2010s (and net generation) to be most productive
time to be youth anywhere. Please help us identify such leaders.
| || |
Macrae Family first met yunus in 07 he was working up SB book 1 on the parisian idea to co-create the first trillion
dollar global brand partnering media .
This sought to celebrate news of every global corporation promoting local
job creation by ... MICROFRANCHISE
in ways that open sourced community owned franchsies starting with youth-led initiatives (Grameen Social Labs) in the world's
poorest (or least sustainable) communities . Why shouldn't such a purpose be worth more than any apple or facebook or murdochian
empire? In any event here we collect good news of corporations promoting local jobs through open techshare projects- and demand
that public media investigate this concept in ways they have so far dismally failed to do in first 28 years of netizen debates
of IT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFGqFWuX0lA http://www.erworld.tv/
|Chris Macrae https://socialbusiness.crowdmap.com/reports/view/21 nearly a quarter of a century ago, 2 people graduated from HEC in paris - one's first job was at Mother Theresa's , another's
at a microcredit in south america- by 2005 their career ladders had advanced enough to ask danone and hec leaders to put the
global grameen proposition to yunus. Soon credit agricole, hirsch's civil society, veolia, schneider electric, renault were
joining in - if only other capitals had found as many tech partners for yunus the net=generation as most productive time for
youth would be winning the war of lost confidence that wall streets and EU's badwill economics of the 2000s has compounded
see pages 32-35 of danone report : latest update published on danone communities ...........................................................................................................................................................-
Create new models to reach consumers
at the base of the pyramid (BOP)
Danone’s first experiments in this field led to the creation of
the danone.communities fund at end-2006 (see pages 92 to 94 of the 2009 SustainabilityReport) with a first pilot (“lab”) tested in the form of a social business
Building on the Bangladesh
experience, Danone created the in-house
organization “Base Of the Pyramid” (BOP) in 2009, with
the goal of radically
innovating to transform Danone’s business and invent new models focused on
the health impact of Danone products for the largest possible number of people.
At end-2010, the first BOP business was created in India
the form of a new production unit and a dedicated local team
This new BOP (“Base Of the Pyramid”) business,
created in under a year
in India with the support of local suppliers, aims to provide very low-income
populations with products whose nutritional qualities meet the needs of children.
course of 2011, four new products for children were launched by this
new entity: two fresh dairy yogurts
and two long-life dairy products in tetrapaks
to compensate for the lack of a cold chain in these regions.
The new products have four key features: affordability, access to nutrition,
the brand as
a guarantee of a health/pleasure balance (Fundooz), and local
connections at every level of the value chain.
The product mix definition integrated all local specificities while seeking
to meet the goal
of offering balanced nutritional benefit at a price adapted
to the population’s standard of living
and the value of coins (priced at 10 rupees
per pot and five per portion).
studies based on Danone tools (Nutripack, see
page 14 of this report)
have made it possible to identify children’s nutritional deficiencies,
for example that 70% of children under age 15 have deficiencies.32 Danone Sustainability Report 2011 A
360° innovation underpins this experimentation
with a new business model
The BOP team innovated not only by creating a very flexible production
scratch, inspired by the Bangladesh experience and able to produce
a high-nutrition product at low cost,
but also in the distribution model
which was designed entirely based on the habits of the targeted consumers
to maximize the products’ visibility in every location. Capitalizing on the
of the Route to Market tools, the entire distribution model was
aligned with consumers’ movement
through various locations (schools,
public spaces, etc.) at different times of the day, and implemented
transportation methods (such as carts), with a multi-functional approach
vehicles and a preference for local access.
Specific local communication methods were also implemented
in the cities
to create direct contact with consumers: awareness in schools, door-to-door,
tours, nutrition-based events, etc.
One year later, at end-2011, these concrete achievements demonstrate
Danone’s ability to adapt and transform its organizations to implement, very
(less than one year to create the production plant) and with limited
investments, new business forms whose
goal is to demonstrate the replicability
of the Danone model in the most distant new regions.
danone.communities: five years of development
danone.communities is a social
business incubator whose mission is to promote,
support and finance social businesses that want to contribute
malnutrition and poverty.
danone.communities was created in 2007 following
an encounter between
Danone CEO Franck Riboud and Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen
and 2006 Nobel Peace Prize winner. The first project arising from the
danone.communities initiative is
Grameen Danone Foods Ltd, one of the initial
cornerstones of the social business edifice.
take things even further, Danone collaborated with Crédit Agricole in 2007
to create an innovative
financial tool for supporting the development of social
business initiatives, the danone.communities SICAV
(French mutual fund).
At least 90% of this fund’s equity is invested in a selection of fixed-income
instruments in the euro zone that favor an SRI approach, and up to 10%
is invested in social
businesses through the danone.communities FCPR
(venture capital fund).
THE stratEgY In action 2011 REsultS - Focus ON THE FOUR STRATEGIC PRIORITIES
Danone Sustainability Report 2011 33
Today danone.communities provides technical and financial support to ten
including seven in which the FCPR has already invested, and three
in the incubation stage. At end-2011,
the SICAV was valued at around €70
million, following a year in which the number of projects receiving
financing rose from five (in 2010) to seven.
Through these ten projects, the geographic
scope of danone.communities
stretches from Mexico to Bangladesh, via France, Senegal, India, Cambodia
and China, in three different business sectors:
• “Water” (with the Mexican, Indian and Cambodian projects;
• “Nutrition” (with five projects including Grameen Danone Foods Ltd
and Laiterie du Berger);
• and “Developed
countries” (with two projects in France).
In 2011, the SICAV received Novethic SRI certification which “recognizes
strict SRI approach applied by Amundi [who manages the tool], the
transparency of its analysis and investment
processes and the quality of its
The FCPR invested in seven projects in 2011, including two
projects, in water, nutrition and the developed countriesWater: providing access to drinking water in rural areas thanks to filtration
technologies and small or very small plants.• 1001 Fountains (Cambodia) is the first danone.communities project
in the water sector (2008). Since its creation, 1001
Fountains has installed 54
water purification stations and impacts almost 70,000 people daily. Chai Lo,
its Cambodian founder, received the “2011 Best Social Entrepreneur” award
Asia from the Schwab Foundation.• Naandi
Community Water Services (India) received danone.communities
FCPR investment in 2010 and has a model very similar to that of 1001
but on a larger scale. Today, with stations installed in nearly 400
villages, Naandi Community Water Services
is the danone.communities
project with the largest overall impact.• El Alberto is the final danone.communities water project in 2011.
Based in Mexico, El Alberto aims to provide safe drinking water to the
communities of the state of Hidalgo. The water purification center was
officially opened in
October 2011, and the project aims to improve the
living conditions of 130,000 people living in these communities.
Created on the initiative of Xochilt
of the Porvenir
Foundation and member of the
danone.communities board of
the El Alberto project aims
to bring safe drinking water to the
of the state
of Hidalgo in the center of the
country. This project should
130,000 people with access
to safe water at an affordable price
(9 pesos/20L, or €0.53/20L)
contribute to creating 200 jobs
for women from the communities
the water distribution centers
are located.34 Danone Sustainability Report 2011 Nutrition: providing nutritional solutions adapted
to children’s tastes
and needs in emerging countries.• Grameen
Danone Foods Ltd. (Bangladesh) is the fund’s first project,
created in 2007 (see
box).• Laiterie du Berger (Senegal), the fund’s second project, has the specific
mission of using local fresh
milk production and improving the living
conditions of the Pular livestock farmers. In 2011, this mission
through sales growth (+60% in August) supported by a new advertising
and more extensive distribution. The project also crossed an
important threshold in its financial consolidation,
notably achieving positive
gross operating profit in October 2011.• NutriGO in China is the newest of the danone.communities projects, which
aims to combat childhood malnutrition in rural China through an awareness
program and a fortified dietary supplement, the YingYang-Bao product.
Currently in its pilot
phase, the project estimates that the program will benefit
6,000 babies in the coming year.
Grameen Danone Foods Ltd
The pioneering danone.communities
Grameen Danone Foods
Ltd., aims to combat child
malnutrition in Bangladesh with a
yogurt fortified with micronutrients,
Shokti Doï. With the support of a
network of Shokti Ladies (878),
sales grew significantly at the end
of the year, peaking
at nearly 2.9
million units in October 2011.
The encouraging results of a
carried out by Gain and Johns
Hopkins University on the health
impact for children of
the micronutrient-fortified yogurt
produced by Grameen Danone
Foods Ltd, should also be published
The NutriGO project is the fruit of a partnership between Dumex,
Grand Billion International Trading Limited (GBIT),
One Foundation and NPI Foundation (two Chinese NGOs)
International Life Sciences Institute Focal Point (ILSI-FP), a Chinese public
for nutrition research. This project aims to combat child malnutrition
in rural China through an awareness
program and a fortified dietary
supplement. The NutriGO project seeks to reach populations that have
not had access before now to nutritional information and products,
by training rural women
in nutrition and sales.
stratEgY In action 2011 REsultS - Focus ON THE FOUR
summer 2012 update
europe's number 1 financial service network for investing in youth's jobs' ; world's best for developing world news network
dear french collaboration entrepreneurs
we want to host 2 norman macrae (The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant) remembrance parties
in paris on these subjects on either 17 or 18 september during week of http://www.convergences2015.org/ ; for each party i offer 1000 euros towards costs which I assume means we can hire a comfortable space and have wine water
and cheese and bread; if some other organisation wants to sustain this celebration as a series etc (then they are welcome
to take it over but not the first nominations)
of honor for the financial serves celebration is maria nowak http://www.adie.org/ http://www.youthcredit.net/ as I believe that eu microcreditsummit identified her partners in nearly 20 countries as the benchmark case for best job
investing financial services network
of honor for best news broadcaster of developing world is one of the 2 founders of http://www.africa24tv.com/
my suggestion is we arange visits
of the postgrads advance party to maria and to africa24 to see if these diary dates work for our guests and to get their ideas
on who they would like invitations sent to =-meanwhile i assume youth and others that we typically meet when we go to paris
will be interested in joining in- we should snail mail sme cheeky invitations - eg commissioner barnier is in town and I assume
identifying party1 is his main job; there is no harm sending people like mo ibrahim and mary robinson invitations to party
2 as their transparency/rights efforts have both inspired africa24's emergence
I am absolutely delighted if by proposing the benchmarks people blog other contenders
and equally if we can start to do this for
different regions -eg http://www.grameenscotland.com/ including asking sir tom hunter to help nominate scottish cases then why no hold a wee scottish party if tom will attend
and his nominations will too ; when it comes to the hunt for exciting development stories the surviving norman macrae in edinburgh
has just published a wee book http://normanmacrae.wordpress.com/
chris macrae wash dc hotline 301 881 1655 - email@example.com
inviting collaboration around The Economist's Glossary of Entrepreneurial Revolution Networks since 1976
transparency note : my first book on media "world class brands" was written in 1989 after 10 years of work
with a french-global company whose partnership with MIT collected the deepest database of what societies wanted from global
corporate brands- it was clear then that the 21st C greatest free markets (those helping to make 2010s youths most
productive and sustanable decade) will cut down the tv ad spot to a bit part player -vive la global grameen netgen economie!
Help us log up how
france is helping make 2010s youths most productive decade
of St Cloud Africa24tv has an audacious plan - to braodcast good news by and for African Youth. Why not celebrate African people as entreprenurial
healthy and wealthy as anwyehre given a continnet of extraordinary resources -human and natural. Can you help Africa24 map
the 100 most important industry sectors by and for Africans and who will be their most transparent leader out of each region.
Any leader passing through parios with a view on who to do this is welcome to join the good news broadcasts out of St Cloud.
Africa24tv is being built by an extraordianry journalists and an amazing operations officer who previously served Mo Ibrahim's
vison and before that helped lead microsoft africa. Africa24tv's founder is also one of the best linked in journalists
at MIT - see diary report at www.africanidol.tv
Africa24 special magazine edition of 500 african entrepreneurs What if the world celebrated a growing pattern of good news stories
like these "Telecom la guerre des prix; les fortunes be Nollywood; Le mystere de fonds Lbyens; La flambee de green business;
Les stars qui investissent; la montee des entrepreneurs sociales; La batalle d'aerien"
Kenya is Africa's Silicon
Valley offering the most trusted financial models of investing in youth's mobile livelihoods(software busienesses are already
in its top 3 exports causing Google Africa to headhunt one of its former hi-tech leaders). Kenya is also a world destination
for ecovilages like Kaputei and celebratng the green movements initiated by the late great Nobel laureate Wangaari Mathai.
and Morocco are celebrated as extraordinary places for women busienss leaders - see the memberships of SEVE and CRASC in Algeria;
count up how many sectors have women ceos in Morocco
Cote D'Ivoire is not just an extraordinary agriculture epicentre
(especially for chocolate); it celebrates such skills as architects and marketing agencies can offer
Ghana is at the
convergence of so many great initiatives - that China chose Accra as the origin of its foirst young peoples business school
in africa; it boasts africa's leading pharna company by and for Africans; this part of Africa has some of the most imposing
busienss personalities I have ever met anywhere - Ghana's emerging joy is to demand that they are the best for african people
that highly energised busienss leaders can be.
In neighbouring Ghana, watch out fror Africa's own IBM of tge future
to evolve and if you are in ever in need of emergency medical asistance, than you lucky stars for the best flying doctors
network in Africa
S.Africa the greatest educators and communiuty entrepreneurs including egov tools that can free this
us firstname.lastname@example.org if you spot a jotful news story who else is entrepreneurially leading which industry out of Africa
With the exception of american economists,
the world has known for at least half a generation that the exponential rising costs of tv ad spots had spun unsustainably.
The opportunity of the internet was to free the first generation of knowledge workers innovation of markets from such
dumbing down communications; the threat was that the unique smarts of new mediation would be drowned out by those who preferred
command and control by big brother media.
Norman Macrae’s remembrance party at The Economist Boardroom in 2010 celebrated this fact and
is becoming a series of worldwide replays with the help of such microeconomics friends as the Embassy of Japan
The dismal social impacts of ads took a globally vicious spiraling turn at the start of the 1990s. This is when they
partnered in greenwashing and then the corporate social irreponsibility which happens whenever the biggest
organisation in any market uses it leadership communications to say they cannot afford to be the first to be responsible about
the compound risks its industry sector knows most locally about. I guest edited 2 special issues of journals on this distarous
loss of freedom for markets to value trust – a triple issue of journal of marketing management in 1999 on the reality
of errors global markets had made in 20th C which needed resolving if 21st C was to celebrate goodwill
multiplication – and a double special issue of the Journal of Brand management on Total Corporate Responsibility a few
years later. Knowing how relatively little this shook up the macroeconomic world, and I am in absolute awe of what 2 fort-something
Parisians hosted in 2005.
In 2005 Paris broke through with the last sustainability luncheon. Hosted at HEC , it was
the peak of 20 years of work of 2 hec alumni. Their first jobs had been at mother theresa’s and a perivian microcredit
– these had planted the idea –which they nurtured for 20 years - that once they had climbed
the management ladder sufficiently they would try and host sustainability’s greatest lunch. They chose the soon to be
Nobel laureate Muhammad Yunus and debated the question what if a cluster of global corporates partnered in grameen being the
essence of the world’s most exciting sustainability network of partnerships mediated by the net generation – the
ultimate un-greenwashing social media!
Riboud of Danone was the first to stand up to the corporate
plate with HEC University promising to advertise that it wanted to untrain MBAs and Martin Hirsch prmoising every assistance
that government could give in stimulating entrepreneurship as a local alternative to youth unmployment. Soon the remarkable
riboud had got timing right to get Nobel the blessing of his shareholders investing in DanoneCommuniteis –The impact
would be to reduce the amount marketing spent on ads as fast as he could celebrate with youth the greatest contributions to
sustainability of danone’s 3 main sectors milk, water, and grains (the latter innovated a wonderful chinese triad partnerships
making this once minor sectir of danone its most extraordinary breakthrough). In France the danone social business chair at
HEC is now co-sponsored by schneider electrricity, and veolia envoromental services have committed to innovate what is the
most responsible it can brand its sector as.
Joining Danone as world leeaders
in freeing global markets to celebrate teir greatest responsibilities are the supermnarket wholefoods –see www.wholeplanetfoundation.org
and the chip manufacourer Intel see www.grameenintel.com A history
of attempts to lead a global market without advertising would not be complete without a reference to brasnon whose virgin
brand has always been most economical in sectors it led good service news of without ads. A few years ago branson decided
he would start open sourcing an entrepreneurship course and chose as his partner taddy blecher free university in s.africa.
The good news is that you can enjoy the world’s best entrepreneur course without paying a penny of student loans as
long as you commit to pay back with social solution innovations and peer to peer open sourcing of such. There is much more
god news to come in out the convergences of partners in s.africa- we are stewarding www.taddyblecher.com until he has time to write it up. Kiva have already joined and the head of Google Africa hubs ideas from the same neibourhood
Europe -Measured against my father's yardsticks as Europe's most experienced post-war economist, we have as yet done nothing to systematically bend the curve on the sub-prime contagion that became visible in 2008.
Therefore it would be prudent to assume that the convergences 2012 paris summit is entrepreneurial europe's (peoples' and youth's) last chance to link in network pre- and post-summit capable of preventing
the total economic destruction of a generation of youth
If you need any help in posting suggestions to the summit secretariat,
I can try and help. Some of the off piste agenda that currently most interest me as helping to action the joyful youth entrepreneurial
revolution we all need to celebrate are:
surveys of university
show that few put job creation as their main purpose - those that do are the
ones compatible with the entrepreneurial view of economics my father stood for
like banks, universities
are a global sectors that could have used tech to become 90% more pro-youth economical by now but as that would have changed
the nature of professors work absolutely -requiring thousands to go out with their students into society the way yunus had
to in 1974 - we can see that the actualisation of a worldwide SMBA needed more than one lunch to form action networking partnerships
the 3 most interesting worldwide epicentres of universities
for job creation known to me are
1 taddy blecher free university
s.africa who is also the person that inspired branson entrepreneur curriculum, has this year launched a great new partnership
with kiva, and lives within miles of the head of google africa who was headhunted for the outstanding work on crowdmapping
she had done in kenya - I should admit having a bias towards supporting taddy's innovations
for more rsvp email@example.com -subject what could university convergences do
EXPONENTIAL IMPACT MODELS
(for economics crisis on above zero-sum game impacts see my father's biography of von neumann) the problem writ large
is to do with total misvaluation of how to use 1 million times more powerful collaboration technology; consequently as it
becomes clearer who are the metrics people that convergences 2015 most linkins around, I would love to know so I can research
which I can use in my work of activising shareholders of The Economists; I can get to the ... families who would want The
Economist to get back to economics that is pro-youth and pro-devekoment of empowering every global village but they are
all overtrumped by the rothschilds who have always been the most difficult family of those owning The Economist to innovate
with; I have booked a series of interviews with colleagues my father used to mentor on how to deal with the R
WORLDWIDE WHICH NATIONS LOVE PRO_YOUTH ECONOMICS MOST
have always been the most willing to partner my father in radically changing the macroeconomic errors of top down aid. Their
embassies are helping to start a serial debrief of this late March ; I realise that date is pushing on the boundaries of conerhnces2012
planning timeline but...
| Rest of Developing World|
Any nation whose people and government wanted Dr Yunus as their chief economist would be most fortunate during 2010s - the exciting net generation decade.That one at the most
critical juncture of sustaining Asia Pacific www century – Norman Macrae, The Economist’s Unacknowledged Giant
Click pic to download inaugural issue
rue Croix des petits champs , 75001, paris, 0 Kms
17, boulevard Haussmann, 75009, paris, 0.66 Kms
de elysee paris france, 1.11 Kms
Rue Doudeauville 75018 Paris, 1.75 Kms
Papers contributed from France Include
Other deep resources
More sustainability fans webs : GrameenDanone.tv GrameenIntel.com buildingsocialbusiness.com
sofia just doublechecking some pervasive links before trip to GrameenFrance :
you pick up on this conversation -some of the exciting points being:
chris temple is the epicentre of http://www.mficonnect.com/ and bringing 50 us youth to kenya
it is good to hear he wants to see yunus book - you could write privately that it
is 80% likely you can bring him a photocopy especially if his group want to work out to what extent other 50 student microcredit
clubs need to change for 2010/11; you might see See if chris’s 50 student group have time to complete the one minute
exponentials game dedicated to drucker and claremont- unfortunately like a lot in click age it takes one
minute to play but a lifetime (if you have a microentrepreneurial change mindset) to learn, action and correct
greatest productivity game humans will ever play
drucker said within 2 generation knowledge workers can be at least 50 time more
productive than industrial age - what did he expect sustainability's exponential rising and job creation's value multipliers
for example if there were 4 multiplying factors A*B*C*D
and let's say
comes from smart programming of computers
* B=3 come from self-esteem energising teamwork and micrentrepreneurial
job creation and sustainability of youth community building
*C=3 comes from open source , and knowledge
multiplying value in use And other stuff that eg manuel castells
http://www.manuelcastells.info/en/index.htm and don tapscott researched that net gens hoped www would be once berners has started this above zero-value game-space
D=3.5 That in knowledge age
we develop great basic community-life critical products at lowest cost eg with help of http://www.grameendanone.tv/ or http://www.grameenintel.com/ and then luxury stuff at higher cost which customises higher quality to those with very untypical needs
from http://yunusforum.net/?p=80 the mass of us who need vibrant open communities. In this process ad spots are wholly redundant (economics can be happy
again) but new media like http://www.danonecommunities.com/ is particularly economical -particularly if all london youth celebrate its hi-trust job creation events while very high
cost 20th c brands still pay 100 million to be at the sports olympics or going down to the woods today with tiger.
Data on multipliers collecetd - We can then play a recursive questiong game –
but remember (as lawyers like Bill Gatwes never wholly does) that these multipliers are the final exponential impact
multipliers not last quarters immediate addictions RECURSION GAME ON 50 TIMESHave
I missed out E altogether (if so how do you describe it); if other people put a number on the multipliers
where would they start having the most opposite view from me – eg is there a group who think its all about brilliant
programming independent of the people factors; how do those at eg http://www.londoncreativelabs.com/ moderate a group of them, a group of me , and then a group mixing us until we understand each others -individually
passionate and commnally proud brand reality system multipliers
|chris is at claremont where rick (who also was yunus booktour 1 LA intervuiewer) is epicentre
of all drucker knowledge in a formal way whereas gladius at uni of E london is world epicentre in an informal way and
at social entreprise olympics campus - some
california unis formed 3500 bookclubs of yunus SB book 1 so both claremon and warner wandsworth Utah networks have a way to
go to catch up with knowledge co-working around SB book 2 http://www.publicaffairsbooks.com/publicaffairsbooks-cgi-bin/display?book=9781586488246&view=extras Utah is where Alexis of NYU comes from and she
was first USA youth ambassador yunus shook hands with jan 2009; alex will recall he couldnt get up from DC to meet yunus
because of a clash of class schedules so insetad I funded him nearly 50 tickets on february day yunus came to DC, GWU
and IMF. Alex started microcredit clubs in boston region schools which peter ryans microloanfoundation has now spread into
the eharof MIT and sloan management school who used to sponsor my dad's books, along with te california instituite of contemporary
studies that sponsored dad and my 1984 book that predicted the 2010s denoument between one Nobel Microecomist, www youth networkers
and a BBC that hasnt yet got its world service SB act together http://www.normanmacrae.com/netfuture.html#Anchor-Changin-27687 I recall a very clear pledge that 40 londoners made in 2005 to give the olympics back to paris if the BBC doesnt value
freedom of speech for sustainability games more than spectator sports. Thank you and john caswell tomorrow for helping keep
londoners on that job creation pathway. other
ref:Abstracts: Brand Reality editorial. Benchmarking
services branding ... |
Brand Reality, which has become an increasingly significant
concept in marketing, ... author: Macrae, Chris. Publisher: Harcourt Brace & Company
if anyone in claremont region knows peter farquhar please say hi - helped friends networks http://www.worldclassbrands.tv/ hugely with global brand partnership research back in 1989
Do Nows include:
find out which is te centre uni of Manuel:
Manuel Castells is University Professor and the Wallis Annenberg Chair of Communication Technology and Society
at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and Professor of Sociology and director of the Internet Interdisciplinary
Institute at the Open University of Catalonia in Barcelona. He is also Professor Emeritus of Sociology and of City & Regional
Planning at the University of California, Berkeley, where he taught for 24 years, after being on the faculty of the University
of Paris for 12 years.
He is, as well, Distinguished Visiting Professor of Internet Studies
at Oxford University, and Distinguished Visiting Professor of Science, Technology and Society at Santa Clara University
Tuesday, January 13, 2015
11:18 am est
TWIN CAPITALS FOR PEACE
IS YOUR CAPITAL LAUNCHING A MOOC TAT MILLENNIALS CAN LINK IN FOR PEACE & ENDING POVERTY?
course info | un-enroll
Monday, April 29, 2013
9:39 am edt
.I love this sort of considered history and system development view of yunus life work- perhaps no where is this done as well
by academics as in france http://www.univ-orleans.fr/leo/liensdr/liendr2007/dr200718.pdf
Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orléans - CNRS UMR 6221, Faculty of Law,
Economics and Management,
Rue de Blois, BP 6739-45067 Orléans Cedex 2 - France
Tel: 33 (0) 2 38 41 70 37-33 (0) 2 38 49 48 19 - Fax: 33 (0) 2 38 41 73 80
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org -
"TWO TESTS ON MICROFINANCE"
The father of
microcredit honored by the Nobel Peace ...
Globalization and microfinance
The father of microcredit honored by the Nobel Peace ...
Muhammad Yunus who invented microcredit and the Grameen Bank
he founded in
Bangladesh thirty years ago just to get the Nobel Peace ...! The small
granted to groups of destitute women proved to be a financial innovation that
contributed to the growing success of microfinance.
Why and how microcredit
and microfinance been successful to the point of
practiced today around the world? And
what are the reserves and
they do not miss critical to generate?
Microfinance, Poverty, Yunus, Grameen Bank.
The Father of Microcredit, Laureate of the
Nobel Peace Prize ...
Muhammad Yunus, Founder
of the Grameen Bank and the Microcredit That he
Established in Bangladesh some thirty years
ago, received the Nobel Prize last year for ...
Peace! Granted the small loans to groups
of poor women Were Considered a financial
Innovation That Contributed to the success of Microfinance.
What Explains the success of Microcredit and Microfinance to the extend That They Are
Practiced today world-wide? What are Their Shortcomings and the Criticisms leveled against
Keywords: Microcredit, Microfinance, Poverty, Yunus, Grameen
JEL codes: G 21 - O 17 - O 53
the Journal of Political Economy, No. 117, March-April 2007, p. 197-208.
Lelart, 4 Villaret de Joyeuse, 75017 - PARIS
Tel: 01 43 80 13 74 - email: michel.lelart @ wanadoo.fr
Thirty years ago there was no talk of microcredit or microfinance or finance
or informal finance
. One after another, these concepts
have found their way
in the economic literature, and they'll probably keep it long. Microcredit
seems particularly well installed. The first Microcredit Summit was held there while
Just ten years in Washington, the last was held in Halifax in November 2006. The UN
decided to make 2005 the Year of Microcredit. And the Bank of Sweden has
award the Nobel Peace Prize to Muhammad Yunus who is considered the father of
same time as the Grameen Bank ("village bank") he created
Bangladesh thirty years
This is not the Nobel Prize in Economics Muhammad Yunus received price. Boasting
Fulbright, the Pakistani student could spend a few years in the United States
study economics. Obtained his Ph.D. he began teaching at various universities
to return to his country became Bangladesh. He returned to
1972 - he was barely more
than thirty years - and began teaching economics at the University
Chittagong. It has
not published a single work from the economy has been some
impact and have made known
. Yet this Nobel Prize is awarded raises
a lot of interest - and some surprise - among economists. This is Muhammad
was in the beginning, thirty years ago, a real financial innovation can
change the lives of
In the village where he lived, near the campus of the university where he began to
teaching, he met a woman who borrowed daily equivalent of 22 cents U.S.
"professional lender" to buy a bamboo with which she made
stools which it sold its
10% in the evening. She then earned a little more than two
cents a day - at least "good
days" - 1.7 euro cents or 11 cents
our old francs
. Realizing that all he had learned in universities
U.S. and now
he taught his students was not large compared with life
that led the people around him, he discovers
that his village 42 women earn their
life this way by borrowing from moneylenders every morning
a total equivalent to 27 dollars. It
decided to pay the $ 27 for the 42 women on his
own money, without interest,
without imposing a date for repayment. And as these women
sell themselves their stools on the market, they get in much more money,
they make their living much better. They become more independent, they feel, and
are gradually less poor.
And of course they repay this loan and Yunus can continue to lend,
always poor women who are small solidarity groups (usually five
time). It manages this activity with students, using his own money, until
- In 1977 -
when a banker friend of his assistance to open a bank in his village. Its
know something they credit the practice with him,
become managers. A few years later
the experience is extended at all
. But there are nearly
twenty researchers from North and South began to work together on
informal savings and credit
in two opened by the Agence Universitaire networks practices
Entrepreneurship Network (www.entrepreneuriat.auf.org) and the network
and Economic Analysis
. Mr. Yunus published
with A.. . PRETTY, a book that has been translated into French Towards a world without poverty -
The autobiography of the "banker to the poor", JC Lattes, 1997. As
the name suggests this is the story of
. Those were replaced by the euro in 2002, not those of 1960!
region, before being in the country. The story of the Grameen Bank begins.
now operates in 73,000 villages in Bangladesh, it has seven million
customers of which 97% are
women and from the beginning it has affected 80% of families and has
lent six billion dollars. It
now lends $ 800 million per year, credit
average is $ 100, unpaid reach just 1%. And
we can say that it has
successful with 58% of its customers are out of poverty. It now
estate, it provides scholarships to students and launched three years ago a
program for beggars whom it lends an average of 12 dollars without interest and
without fixed maturity by encouraging them to exercise a small business. Gradually begging
begins to decline in this country.
The Grameen Bank has not remained in Bangladesh. This
remain marginal to quickly spread. The experiment was repeated by sixty
countries in Africa and Latin America, it is even now present in Europe.
it is not reproduced identically, it is always appropriate. And especially it is not
only way to help the poor, the fight against poverty is accompanied
often of initiatives to
facilitate the financing of small businesses or political
for the informal sector. This
is why the phenomenon of microcredit exceeds
Now the experience of the Grameen Bank. In
any country whatsoever, there is not that
institutions which resemble him.
We will first ask why or how this innovation has succeeded
to be adopted around
the world and why it arouses much curiosity. We
then examine the reservations and criticisms
that it does not fail to arouse because if the
assessment of microcredit is positive, all the
problems are not resolved so far.
Reasons for success
of microcredit, and now know Yunus and
Grameen Bank, can not be understood unless it is placed
in a broader context.
- On the one hand, the demand side if we can say,
is a great need to find a
way to help developing countries effectively. The success in
this regard are not
triumphant. Poverty is not ready to absorb, quite the contrary. The
international community has recognized the need to take initiatives in this regard. It
Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) decision by the IMF in 1996 and
based on the development of a Strategy Paper Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP).
This is the new Facility for Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF), which
the old Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF). It is the UN that has made
the first targets of the Millennium Development Goals poverty. And
However, the official
development assistance continues to decline, and banks
International withdrew long. Nationally,
it was understood that the
going development by the private sector, especially small and micro-
companies. As the banking industry are not interested in the informal sector,
it lacks a means to finance income-generating activity and reducing poverty. There
in every village and in every city a "money lender" which gives
loans without collateral,
without formalities, without even waiting for the borrower, but we
known rates. They
contribute much to extend to reduce poverty ...
- On the other hand, the supply side this time, there has always been in the South
rather specific financial practices that work well because they
match both the
needs, habits, attitudes. We recently known
the existence of African tontiniers repaying
the end of the money - we should say
savings - submitted by customers every day, and more often,
before you receive it. Finally tontine whose members pay you well know now
periodically a contribution that is given to one of them in turn. These practices
traditional savings and credit based on a close relationship between
are very popular in most of Asia and Africa, the
also found in Central America. This
informal finance as
call today opposed in many ways to the formal finance: it is the finance
to measure because it is able to constantly innovate to adapt to the increasingly
needs is finance experienced by people who know all and
which it is whenever a
human adventure. It is the finance sector.
It is on what ground taken microcredit and
it has developed since the first
initiative Yunus at an accelerated pace. It is now practiced
in all countries
South, according to a variety of forms. But it is often a collective
credit given to groups
women as Bangladesh, support groups such as India, groups
mutual aid and Indonesia: there we find groups that may have to be
during the tontine. And
it is always a local credit where the distance between
borrowers and their creditors is never
very high, where information is almost perfect, where
money is "hot"
. It is much better suited than bank loans to people
accustomed to informal financial practices, and should be much better than loans
to people with few resources and still fragile.
If innovation Yunus was able to grow as quickly
many countries in the world, it has also gradually changed. This is why
always talk about microcredit, but talk more often about microfinance. Just as we do
Microcredit can understand without referring to informal finance that preceded it
can not understand it better without reference to microfinance exploding today. The
between these two concepts is indeed essential. It illuminates the success of
One difference is that informal finance more concerned
tontine begins by receiving deposits, it replaces the "guards currency."
are often seen as a way to force him to pay his dues, that is
means to save. Social pressure
is very strong within the group effect. Microcredit
instead puts emphasis on credit ...
naturally! But if the credit is first, it is
not just credit. This is why we talk
- On one hand, it is usually accompanied. The woman who borrows from
not only need money, she often need guidance to use the money
it borrows. Generally the recipient of a microloan may be advisable
a small business to keep its accounts to calculate a cost for
make certain decisions. It
may sometimes benefit from training sessions. These
to the well-known expression of Guy BEDARD. Hot money is that of relatives, family,
and neighbors. The cold hard cash is the government, the foreign banks ... we will reimburse the
not the second!
support services such as: counseling, monitoring, training, coaching is
in microcredit. These are such services that make microfinance a finance
- On the other hand, other services, financial those also accompany microcredit.
It is primarily savings, borrowers are encouraged to open an account and pay
little more certain deadlines. It is also the insurance, which is a guarantee to get
if for some reason, whenever chance, we needed ... and these are the
poorest who need the security
of such. Finally, a new service takes
increasingly important in developing countries,
the transfer of money made it difficult for
people who do not have access to banks. It
is all of these financial services
that characterize microfinance.
second difference is that the finance for informal practices
bringing in the presence
of persons. This is of direct finance. Microcredit is the contrary
by an institution. It is the same, of course, the
microfinance, as it is also the time
savings, insurance and money transfer.
Do not we talking also of microfinance institutions (MFIs)? We
Now in indirect finance. And these institutions are very diverse. They were
local initiatives, such as programs initiated by the government or foreign
such cooperation agencies (AFD, CIDA, USAID ...), organizations
GRET, ACCION ...), international institutions (the Bank
World Bank, the ILO ...). These
projects may involve only the credit or the credit link
an action for poor women, unemployed
youth, artisans ... and can
affect the health, nutrition, the environment ... They are often
run by NGOs
local which may involve more or less in these operations, to enter into relations
with commercial banks to partner with them .... or adopt their status.
picture is not complete. Indeed missing two kinds of institutions. It lacks
institutions, located in the South according to the European model (the
Canadian credit unions)
(credit unions) or Anglo-Saxon (Credit Unions). A
Originally, they were tasked to fight
against wear using savings available
in the village. They have the same mission today
in Africa or Asia. It also lacks
commercial banks, as it is to make microcredit, either
because they have been created
immediately for this, as in Eastern Europe in recent years, as
institutions have grown enough to turn up to take this status, as
This means how microfinance is a heterogeneous sector. Not only
institutions that come together have a very different status, but they are distinguished by their
size: one made for six months a few hundred members who
the equivalent of tens of thousands of euros, some in place for ten
years have tens of thousands
of members who have borrowed a few million.
In some countries these institutions are grouped
and services are controlled. This is the
Federation of Agricultural Mutual Funds (FECECAM)
in Benin which includes funds
agriculture, it is the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) in Indonesia
has almost 4000
agencies whose outstanding loans exceed two billion dollars. Both countries
not only in an institution which dominates. At the international level, 3% of MFIs
80% of customers ...
You can find everything in microfinance ... This is even more true that meeting
such institutions in the North. We too are poverty and
it does not shrink. Growing
inequalities, unemployment became especially intolerable.
Social exclusion is certainly a marginal
phenomenon, it is still a reality, and
difficult to live with, because traditional forms of
solidarity, so present in the country
South, no longer exist in the North. It has generated
in recent years a number
initiatives. One of the first, and best known, is the Association
for the Right to
Economic Initiative (ADIE), founded in December 1988 by Maria Nowak who sought
adapt the model bank for the poor created by Yunus
. Others followed at
sometimes regional level, and in many neighboring
countries ... and even in European countries
Central and Eastern Europe, in particular in post-conflict
countries where it is important to give
quickly to each other, the way to return to work. Institutions
Similar thus born in Bosnia and Kosovo. And a European Network
was created by ADIE ...
Social exclusion is a double financial exclusion. In industrialized
bank money is by far the most used, the current account does not only
pay by check, it also allows transfers, direct debits,
card payments today ...
It is also important to have a bank account that
a phone. Social life is inconceivable
without a like without the other.
That is why the law against exclusion of 1998 established
the right in France
account along with the basic banking service. And as access to services
banking naturally leads to access to credit, microcredit has finally aim
in the North, to fight against financial exclusion. Programs are
introduced for this
purpose by many institutions. Managed in partnership with banks,
they often receive public
assistance. This is France's vocation Fund
Social cohesion established in January 2005
at the same time to guarantee repayment of
micro-finance and training support staff.
Microcredit in North ultimately remained at least in principle, similar to what
is in the South. Northern countries have exported their former finance to developing countries,
commercial banks have failed to reach the 'modern' sector of the economy.
are now exporting their finance to the North where microcredit
achieves the unbanked. The
innovation of Yunus ended up having
a truly global impact. However, it raises a number
problems, it even causes some controversy.
The problems of
North things are pretty clear. Microcredit is marginal, it concerns
a fringe - fortunately small - population. Organizations, whether
or not, all fall within a legal framework that can be the bank executive or
may have been designed
for them. By definition, they are not profitable, or if they are, their
is not. They must have a special financing,
Nowak has published is not as rich ready: the microcredit revolution, JC Lattes, 2005. ADIE
willingness in principle 5,000 euros, granted for two years at a rate of 7%. This loan comes
with a whole
range of complementary services, both to facilitate the start of the project and
for accounting, economic, financial ... Three-quarters of people supported by the
outputs of social assistance schemes.
both to cover the cost of these operations is by nature high, and for
funds" not only to "prime" the credit activity,
but to then develop.
It is not the same in the South. We told how this new sector was limited
10,000 institutions that is usually addressed not only
different in status and size. They
are also in their performance, and
two ways. They can respond more or less to the needs
of their customers, the
quality of their services and the interest rate on their loans. They
may also be more
or less well managed, more or less successfully to cover their costs and finance
themselves. Some became independent in a few years, others disappear
as quickly, the examples in this regard are many. It should be added that some lend themselves to
poor women in other small and medium-sized enterprises operating in one environment
rural, the other urban and in some countries they are regulated in other
some countries they are at the limit of the informal, in others they have
organized within regional
or national associations, some have formed
network around a common union or federation support
eg IT or staff training ...
It is obvious that under
these conditions the microfinance sector, which remains an area
extremely young, may be contradictory
analyzes and generate
recommendations are equally important. Each other and understand
each other better if we
considers that some MFIs rather have a social vocation, others rather
financial vocation. The first come to the rescue of the poor, they are closer to
their customers, they can not operate with subsidies, they can never
be fully integrated
into the financial system. The latter seek to maximize their
activity, proximity is relative,
of course they work without subsidies, they
practice market rates, they compete, they are already
part of the system
Financial. Political authorities can not be the same ... and researchers
difficult to compare these extremes.
Take the case of
social institutions. They are smaller at the same
time the most numerous. The
most contentious issue is the impact on poverty.
The answer is not easy. First, poverty
is defined not only in relation to
income, it is a much more qualitative concept, which can
account for access to water
drinking or school for children, availability of housing, the degree
in the social environment ... It is heavy and complex surveys to determine customer
an institution. Then what matters are the changes. They can be observed in
level of the institution, they are based on the number of clients or the amount of credits
granted. They can be observed at the level of borrowers: they are less
they have managed to create a small business or expand ... and especially in
what extent is
it due to the credit that they get and they were able to use good
spent? The answer is
not always obvious, even if the survey is based on a
Studies here and there over the last ten years show most often
improving the economic
and social situation of the borrowers. Microfinance
certainly have a positive impact. Monographs
individual experiences that have been very successful and are all "success
stories. " However, the results are extremely diverse and sometimes
contradictory. It is
income increases but at the same time household debt, which is autonomy
but the balance can be compromised within the couple. Even the
Grameen Bank, the record
for women is not as positive
. Furthermore, it is now
assumed that MFIs do not lend all systematically poorest of the poor, nor
the very poor, but the poor less poor. The customer is then
less risky, she needs more
credits whose management is less costly ...
MFIs with a social vocation play a role that may
be important in some countries or
for certain populations. But the one hand, they contribute
to poverty reduction,
they can not hope to eliminate it completely. On the other hand,
they can contribute to
development, but they are not the only actors. Microfinance is
certainly not the solution. Therefore we need to encourage these institutions
to give them the
means to act, and therefore accept to subsidize, but not of course without
unconditionally. On the other hand, the states should not expect any of them. Other
other policies are equally necessary not only for the poorest, but
also in favor of informal sector workers who do not need credit to grow
participate more actively in the growth of the economy. Still need to know
and accept ...
Now consider the case of financial institutions vocation. They
many, but their activity is less important. Some have become
banks, others are getting close. Their impact on poverty is still discussed, but
their integration into the country's financial system, which tends to be "inclusive", that is,
ie to include institutions that meet the financial needs of the whole
microfinance institutions are not subsidized must
finance themselves. They do it in different
ways. Some negotiating a
partnership with commercial banks, which can in this way be
involved in the
microcredit. Some open accounts to their customers to encourage them
So they can finance their loans, at least in part, by their deposits. Some
still appeal to the market by issuing bonds as they do already in America
and began to make in several African countries. They can also strengthen their
by issuing shares that may subscribe donors
traditional and social investors.
Such autonomy was reached by the Grameen Bank happens to any grant
since 1995 and
whose own resources added to deposits currently account
143% of its outstanding loans. But
the case of Grameen is special, if that
its history and the media in which it was subject before
the Nobel Prize. The
Microfinance can not borrow the market channels and enter a commercial
to several conditions. Institutions can not compete with each other and
banks if a suitable regulatory framework is established in advance, which is the case
in a growing number of countries. Their management should be transparent and respectful of
"Good practices", only able to guarantee the quality of their services at the same
time a slow and gradual decline in interest rates charged. There will always be
a fundamental difference between these institutions and commercial banks,
. An article in the International Centre for Local Credit Mutuel is quite critical in this regard, as
"Counterparties" that is the acceptance of a kind of moral code and respect
for each meeting of a rite based
of 26 commandments. Development without solidarity:
The Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, Technical
financial and development, No.
62-63, June 2001, p. 26-35.
unless the former do end up adopting the status of seconds they open
are currency, so they can create money as
their credits are their deposits. Not so with
the micro finance is not by itself
As the purpose of
these financial institutions is confirmed and strengthened,
other problems arise, in particular,
that of governance. How is exercised
power in each institution? As they become
more professional, these institutions
interest to remain fairly close to their customers, because
microcredit is a local credit,
Money should not be too cold ... And it is not always easy to
reconcile the technical
growing of these operations, as any financial transaction with the involvement
desired customers, including through the elected institutions such
is not always easy either for leaders to manage the institution in
sole interest of its customers,
current and future. Finally, when the institution becomes independent, its
a capital return to shareholders ... But who are the
shareholders? The NGO took the initiative,
donors who funded the State
who sponsored the debtors whose benefit the institution was created,
which are not necessarily the same ...? A Grameen Bank, 6% of the capital
state, 94% to customers ... that is to say to the poor.
This distinction - social vocation, financial vocation -
is a little sketchy, because
share some extreme cases most institutions try to reconcile these
dimensions. But it helps to better understand the challenges posed by these MFIs. The
we find everything in microfinance today, it is difficult to predict it
will be in twenty years Qu'aura she did for poverty? The institutions be
profitable? What will be their contribution to development? Will they happen
the informal sector? Will they have their place in every country in the system
For now success is exemplary, it is that of the Grameen Bank. The bank
not only become profitable and self-fact, it is not
only extended to the level
of a whole country before being copied by sixty other.
It has reduced poverty in a very poor
country, helping more people
disadvantaged and marginalized to improve their living conditions,
and beyond, to
find a real confidence in themselves along with a certain dignity. And
This is because the Nobel Committee believed that the reduction of poverty can contribute
peace in the world that Mr. Yunus and the bank he imagined thirty years ago were
this year. The Committee had considered that the promotion of human rights,
of democracy, respect for the environment, may have the same
influence. In making this
choice this year, it does not require us to take only
aware of the extent of poverty in the
world, it helps to reduce the gap between
the West and Islam, at the same time it emphasizes
the importance of women's role in
economy and beyond, in society
. See speech
of the Chairman of the Nobel Committee before presenting the award to Mr. Yunus.
But for economists, the Nobel Peace associated with microcredit has merit
special. It opens our eyes to the diversity of methods and systems
funding between countries,
especially those between North and South, but also
the importance of behavior and therefore
men who are at the heart of life
economy since they are the key players. The Nobel Prize
is not saving
reminds us especially, and how masterful way that economics is a
social science, and what we call "the economy" can be, and therefore should
at the service of men.
Some recent references:
ARMENDARIZ of AGHION
B. and J. Morduch, The Economics of Microfinance, MIT
S. BOYES, J. Hajdenberg POURSAT and C. (Eds), Guide to the Microfinance
microcredit and savings for development, Editions d'Organisation,
GUERIN I. MARIUS-GNANOU K., T. PAIRAULT and SERVET JM (eds), The
Microfinance in Asia: between tradition and innovation, IRD-Karthala, 2005.
GUERIN I. and BEARING J. (Eds), Microfinance Challenges: Empowerment or
Disempowerment of the Poor? French Institute of Pondicherry, 2005.
D. Hulme and P. Mosley, Finance against Poverty, 2 vols., Routledge, New York,
LABIE M., microfinance issues
- Limits and organizational choices, Ed Luc Pire,
LEDJERWOOD J., Microfinance Handbook - An institutional and financial perspective
World Bank, Washington, 1998.
Lelart M. (eds.), Informal Finance
and Development Financing, AUF and Data Sheets
Arab world, Beirut, 2000.
Lelart M. From the informal microfinance finance, AUF and Editions Archives
Contemporary, Paris, 2006.
Mourji F., B. DECALUWE PLANE and
P. (Eds) The development to poverty, AUF
and Oxford University
MS Robinson, The Microfinance Revolution - Sustainable Finance for the
RUTHERFORD S., How
the poor manage their money, GRET-Karthala, 2002.
SCHNEIDER H. (Ed.), Microfinance
for the poor OECD, Paris 1997.
SERVET JM, Bankers barefoot - Microfinance, Odile Jacob, 2006.
Microfinance, poverty and development, and AUF Editions Archives
Mr. Zeller and RL Meyer, The Triangle of Microfinance Financial Sustainability,
Outreach and Impact, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2002.
Several journals have devoted a special issue to microfinance:
Worlds, published by De Boeck in Brussels: No. 119, September 2002
No. 126, June
Revue Tiers Monde, published by PUF: No. 172, December 2002.
Financial and Technical Development, published by savings without border: No. 59-60,
October 2000, 70 and 73 March and December 2003, No. 78, March 2005.
also often articles about microfinance in Savings and Development
Milan), in World Development (Elsevier), the Journal of Development
Globalization and microfinance
These two concepts have a priori nothing in common. They can however
The one and the other are not really new has recently exploded in the '80s,
and microfinance quickly became like globalization that is naturally
international phenomenon. The Nobel Peace Prize is a striking proof.
These two concepts
are not strangers to one another. Microfinance can
be seen as a reaction to globalization. It
makes it possible to mitigate
some impact on the poorest people, and if it can not be used
as a new policy, at least it can support certain policies
Keywords: microfinance - microfinance - globalization - development
Globalisation and Microfinance
thesis two concepts have, a priori, nothing in common, They can nevertheless
Both concepts, All which Have Been known for some time, Have recently taken off, in the
80s, and microfinance HAS Rapidly Become, like globalization Itself, international year
phenomenon, as Witnessed by the Nobel Peace Prize Awarded in 2006.
thesis two concepts are not unrelated. Microfinance can be Considered as a
globalization to the extent That The form is used to offset some of the effects of
on The Most Disadvantaged groups in the world, and if microfinance cannot be used
as a new policy
instrument, it can at least be used to Accompany some development policies.
JEL Code: F
O2 - 017
Paper presented at the "Symposium Globalization and
Development", University of Annaba
(Algeria), September 2007.
Globalization and microfinance
Globalization and microfinance, that although
two concepts, a priori, have little
in common. One could say that both of them lend themselves
different. Globalization can affect the operation of multinational
mean another organization of harmonious relationships between states become less influential
national level. Between firms and states, between business management and relationships
Cities, other agents and other areas are also affected. Similarly, the
is practiced by institutions varied status in favor of officers who have
have different needs. This
concept again is often difficult to grasp.
But the overall impression is still that if these
two concepts raise a
and the other a lot of questions, they are fundamentally different. Globalization
an international phenomenon in nature, since it concerns relations between states or
rather between agents belonging to different states, while microfinance is a
phenomenon that thrives in a much smaller space in which the actors are
people who usually know. Globalization
is thus a
global phenomenon that extends to all areas of the economy, and not just those;
microfinance for finance, and if it can extend beyond savings and
however, the field remains limited and well defined. Globalization feeds
extended to the international level, so that microfinance does not prohibit
institutions, but it creates a degree of complementarity between
these institutions and the
traditional financial institutions. Globalization is
naturally to improve the profitability
of economic activity, based microfinance
more on solidarity, which introduces a social dimension. Globalization
is accompanied by the deregulation that facilitates the development of trade and the flow
capital, the development of microfinance necessitates regulation of
globalization and microfinance each concern all countries, but
the first is more the case in
the North, the second concerns more countries
South, the first still has implications for developing
countries, the second extends
Now the North.
The opposition between
the two concepts appears sharp and determined. And yet the
similarities abound. On
the one hand, we will show that they have two
common dimensions: time, because
these phenomena have recently exploded all
two, in space, because microfinance
has internationalized, and therefore closer to the
globalization that is naturally. On
the other hand, these two phenomena are not without
relations. Microfinance can appear
both as a response to globalization
which can mitigate some of the
effects, and as a new development tool that deserves
to be taken into
account in the policy states.
I. The analogies between globalization
These two concepts are very distant from each other,
many aspects between them, and
strongly. And yet, one can discern some similarities. Their
better define what microfinance because it is not the theme of this symposium
on globalization. We will position ourselves successively in time and
1. The explosion of globalization and microfinance
The origin of globalization is not obvious. As it is a process, and
is more of a natural process after all, it is not easy to determine the beginning .. It
can be traced back to the early exploits of the browsers that will make possible the
trade or, 300 years later, industrialization will make it necessary to
it is much closer to us than globalization a date
really exploded with the freedom of trade,
with the emergence of multinational firms,
with financial globalization, with migration ...
as with the development of
tourism, or dizzy and constant communication progress. These
factors are all steps have made globalization a complex phenomenon that
is not easy to define
And not more dated. At
least we can say that it has taken
important that we know today as the last few decades.
The history of microfinance is not so different. Its origin, too, is
to determine. Could be traced back to the establishment of the first cooperatives
at the end of XIX
(Desjardins in Canada Raiffessen Germany
even back to the beginning of the last century with the creation of "banking
for the poor." And
why not go back in the South to the arrival of the currency. For
long lends money and takes in a group, between members who all
who are in turn debtors and creditors, or vice versa. Tontines
are practiced everywhere
and in some African countries have replaced the tontine
guards currency. We called these
financial practices, which are based on relationships
narrow personal, informal finance. This
is a finance sector, it is mainly the
direct finance in which debtors and creditors are in direct
It is in this soil that microfinance has taken, there is a good ten years. But
this time a radical change has taken place. The transition from one concept to the other
effectively meaningless. Microfinance is still, of course, a matter of debt
and receivables, but this time the debtors and creditors are no longer face to face, they
cater to an institution - the microfinance institution. Microfinance is the
indirect funding that will remain the finance sector, but will no longer be as
addition, while in the informal finance savings is essential, in
microfinance is credit that
is - micro-credit - and it is associated with other services
institutions can offer the same
time saving course, but also insurance,
money transfer and other so-called "support"
services to help and
advise the borrower.
There is always, as
in globalization, some continuity, especially as
some microfinance institutions already existed
when we spoke only of finance
informal. So it was mutual or cooperative savings and credit
often the largest MFIs which have been established in Africa, for example, from
. It is even whether globalization "would not ultimately a word tote
corresponding to reality ... "(Baudrand and Henry, 2006).
the aftermath of the last war. Support programs for certain sectors
trades, some populations are long, as well as NGOs
which often interested in credit. But
this time there is a real break, which can be
place around 1995, when the concept of microfinance
has appeared in the literature
reasons for this are well known: it is primarily the failure of development policies, taking
awareness of poverty and the continued success of the now well-known innovation
(Lelart 2006 and 2007a). From that date the microfinance really too
new institutions are created, the number of customers
increases, the volume of their operations,
especially credit provided, increases
quickly. And yet it is qualitatively and quantitatively
grows and she is talking about her. It is mainly about her, and more,
because it is international.
internationalization of microfinance
microfinance is not a phenomenon
international in nature. But she has become, as it has
"Global dimension" (Gentil and Servet, 2002). This was done
in several ways.
Microfinance primarily concerns all countries, because
in all countries there is a
need small loans, and credit accompanied by advice or supplemented
assistance. In all countries, people who can not access banks need
use of financial services that are tailored to their needs. Institutions found
in developing countries, are also found in Eastern Europe since the
countries are open to the
market economy, they are also found in Northern countries
also experience poverty, unemployment,
exclusion. The model of the Grameen Bank
invented by Mr. Yunus was adopted - and adapted
- by 85 countries including France ... including
ADIE Maria Nowak. But this model is
not the only one, and many institutions are born
has also gradually organized. Associations
professional were created
at the national level, as in Benin and Madagascar. In the
most countries regulations
have been adopted, which gives better visibility
"Microfinance". This sector
necessarily interacts with the
banking sector. The two often form partnerships that may
cooperation. It even happens that banks, including large international banks,
engage in microcredit ... because globalization has intensified competition in
banking (Littlefield and Rosenberg, 2004). Organized in this way in each
microfinance sectors have relationships beyond their borders. It
are now regional microfinance
associations in West Africa, the
Maghreb, the Arab world, for all of Africa, for Western Europe
... There are
even an international association of leading microfinance institutions
. All this
. The first title is, to our knowledge, that a book dedicated to the World Bank
institutions" in West Africa (Webster and Fidler, 1995). The concept is not far
. Institutions located in several countries may even
form a network if they are the same
type, or if they are funded in the same way. This
is the case of Credit Agencies for Private Enterprise
(CAPE) present in Senegal, Cameroon, Madagascar. We
may also mention the Regional Bank
allows the publication of aggregate statistics and facilitates the exchange of information, as
common actions. Microfinance knows no boundaries.
And is supported by
international institutions. These are NGOs or
national cooperation agencies involved
in several countries. These are funds
international investment as Oixocrédit,
ACCION, Triads, Calmeadow the
SIDI ... It is also the regional development banks and the World
that hosts the well known CGAP, which played a key role in the development and
formalization of these sectors (Boye, 2006, page 258)
are the states themselves
undertake to support microcredit programs in developing countries. They
in the framework of the European Union which has its own development policy .. Finally,
rating agencies issue opinions on the creditworthiness of institutions and the risks
they represent. These international agencies can intervene anywhere in the world, and
the cost of the evaluation requested by an institution is usually supported at
partially, by the donors who are usually strangers.
Finally, microfinance has become a
concern of the Community
international. The first Global Microcredit
Summit held in New York in 1997
helped launch a campaign against poverty. Other peaks
regional summits. The discussions addressed gradually the diversity
and complexity of the problems (Guerin, 2002). What size given the media
meetings have attracted growing interest. The member states of the G8 have endorsed
eleven key principles established by CGAP microfinance to the Summit
Gleneagles in June of 2004. The UN has decided to make 2005 the International Year of
microcredit. That year President Chirac held in Paris on June 22 a day
brought together 600 international experts. A new Microcredit Summit was held in
in 2006. And at the end of that year, Mhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank is
Nobel Prize ... not the economy, although it is credit and finance,
but of peace.
Thus, microfinance has become in recent years a worldwide phenomenon.
forms a natural way in the globalization process. One can even
say that it is a part,
at least we can see it as a response to the
relationship between microfinance and globalization
be seen as a response to globalization. In
hand, considering the past, it can help to
mitigate some of the consequences
painful for the most vulnerable populations. On the
other hand, considering the future, it
appears to be a new development tool that can create
a new policy
the States: it may well come at once to the rescue of globalization, or it
Established in 2005 in each UEMOA solidarity or proposed Confederation
African Credit Mutuel.
supporting microfinance subject of a chapter in the book of Boye et al,
2006, p. 253-280, see also
Servet, 2006, p.. 244-247.
1. Microfinance to the rescue of globalization
Globalization raises very opposite judgments. Some see it as a factor
growth which requires countries developing or in transition to integrate
global economy and allows some of them to gradually reduce the gap that
countries. Others consider it instead of a responsible
accentuation of this gap and increasing
marginalization of some countries that are
"Forgotten" of globalization. See
especially the first benefits of this phenomenon,
the latter rather see its drawbacks. But
beyond these differences are also
ideological, and some others are probably right. Globalization
is not the same
consequences for Vietnam and Bulgaria for the Niger and Colombia. And
if it is
favorable to growth, it is not anywhere as much or in the same way. Inequalities
tend to widen between rich and poor countries and between rich and
in each country. Thus in reinforcing inequality globalization
tends to make the poor
poorer (Hugon, 2000; Nicolas, 2002).
Some projections from the World Bank show a significant
poverty in the world by 2015, together with an increase also
in sub-Saharan Africa. The population living on less than one dollar a day
decrease by 35% and 15% increase (Cling et al, 2003, page 31)
While 50% of the world population lives on less than two dollars a day, and
a billion people live on less than a dollar, reducing poverty
became almost naturally "a
major international duty" (Camdessus, 2001). It
became the first of the Millennium
Development Goals and it is taken into
account by international institutions. The IMF
and World Bank agreed in 1996
debt reduction for heavily indebted poor countries. They
then made it a condition that the
countries develop a Strategy Paper Poverty Reduction
(DSRR) which requires
allocate the funds released by the non-repayment of its debt to public
likely to reduce poverty, especially in the field of education and
health. This condition is then imposed on countries wishing to use the new
for Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF).
But how to reduce poverty? Several
policies are possible. We can give
money to the poor who do not. They can also
help to do something and
undertake "an income-generating activity." This is
where microfinance. The
PRSP focus mainly on education and health plan often
measures for microfinance. It may be the establishment of a legal framework,
the capacity of institutions, improving governance, development
establishment of a fund to support
and guarantee policy ... This is facilitated by
NGO intervention are requested to actively participate
in the PRSP process,
as they often play a very real and important role in providing
microcredit to poor people. We can say that because of globalization, they
now influence public policy development (Vielajus,
. Taking into account the increase in population during this period, the percentage of the
population decrease of 45% in the world and only 16% in sub-Saharan Africa ...
The governments also use this policy themselves. In Benin
example, a microcredit
program for the poorest (MCPP) was launched in February 2007.
With 6 billion CFA francs (€
9 million), it will allow institutions
microfinance to extend credit 30,000 CFA (45 euros) to
200,000 poor families
to help develop "income generating activities" (Lelart, 2007b). If
added activities of national cooperation agencies and specialized agencies, the
Microfinance is now at the heart of the fight to reduce poverty in the world
It is even more than microfinance institutions also grant services
insurance, allowing to cover certain risks faced by their users, and they are
poorest who are most vulnerable and most in need of such services the most. And
because poverty often creates financial but also social exclusion.
One can even say in this
regard that microfinance is invested by the authorities
public, the duty to respond to situations
of exclusion that can be caused by
globalization (Gentil and Servet, 2002).
But this is not because microfinance is increasingly used for this purpose as
reduces poverty. The problem of the impact remains highly controversial. It is not
to measure poverty, as it appears more as a qualitative concept. It
is not easy to measure
its progress and isolate a precise way the impact of
credit granted. Moreover, it seems
clear now that microfinance is not the most
poorest of the poor, so it takes them to another
policy. The dominant impression is
however, if its impact can not be measured exactly
and it is only positive for
fraction of the beneficiaries of microfinance contributes to poverty
reduction. The institutions
are not all equally effective as the Grameen Bank, but the
overall balance is positive,
although some would like it to be more.
is also because microcredit is not a social vocation. When it is
given to poor women,
it should enable them to exercise a "generating activity
income. " It has at
the same time an economic purpose, which becomes dominant
if the recipient is a business. We
can consider that it is rather a support
Rather some microfinance institutions
have a social vocation. These are the most
many, along with the
smaller ones. Others have more of a financial vocation.
less numerous, but their activity is significantly higher. Some
is even closer to banks,
both the volume and the operations
relationships they have with one of them (Lelart, 2007)
. Simply include PADME
PAPME to Benin, Senegal CAPE or Madagascar ... These are the institutions that
. Another example is the use of some U.S. funding allocated to a fund called "Millennium
Challenge Account "(MCA). For priority sectors of education and health, they are also
used in Benin for example, to improve access to financial services by helping institutions
includes help to equip, train their staff, to refinance their loans ...
to mention the extreme cases where MFIs have become real commercial banks, as
or when banks have opened a window "microcredit" and have engaged in this
as in some African countries and Asia.
provide financing for small and medium enterprises which banks are reluctant
to lend. These companies have a natural vocation to grow - that's why
they have to borrow
- and thus to diversify their production, to seek
partnerships, gradually developing their trade
to seek more capital ...
This is how they will fit into the mainstream gradually the
globalization. Because it is primarily the result of companies, which are the primary agents.
It can also refer to micro-enterprises, which usually characterize the sector
can hardly take the banking sector, so they are the client
more diligent microfinance
. They are designed not only to grow, but more
yet to transform and integrate gradually Seteur modern economy. It is difficult
the impact of microfinance on economic activity in a country, but it is
any positive evidence. Thus,
in facilitating the emergence and development
competitive enterprises, microfinance promotes
long-term integration of the country into
another impact, probably more important. Globalization is often
vehemently, because it raises many concerns. It is
including fear of a certain cultural
uniformity that would result, it is
fear that local or even national cultures can be preserved
2003). There is indeed a risk that the current director of the IMF underscores
calls "to pay more attention to the social dimension of globalization"
(Kohler, 2004). Is it not precisely the advantage of microfinance to preserve this
dimension? Institutions are seeking more profitability, and sustainability that
it, but they usually try to stay a community finance. The
users are often involved in
the life of the institution, they know, they sometimes grouped
committing to borrow jointly. The
services are always tailored to
needs of each other. Microfinance strives to remain a
wherein users are found easily.
It is in this
sense that it creates social integration (Dembinski and Bonvin, 2003). It is
why it is
necessary, in countries that have always had this way of pay and
to borrow money from people
who know, to accompany the
globalization. To the extent that it allows the same time
fight against poverty,
it is a natural part of the "social dimension" that is required
by the adaptation of
countries at different stages of globalization and is largely left to NGOs
(Levy 2001). We know precisely what role they play in supporting initiatives
microfinance or even more direct involvement in these operations.
This social mission
of microfinance is also reflected in its natural ability to
to support the relationships between
people, we say today to build social capital,
which we know is an important factor in the growth
as well-being (and Baudassé
Montalieu, 2007) and that its absence is a key determinant
of poverty, as
the absence of physical or monetary capital (Cling et al, 2003, page 36).
But globalization is not just about the flow of goods or
it is also about migration. The movement of people often
an economic reason, they are
linked to the search for a more profitable business within a
is always difficult to have statistics. We know that Central and Latin America, for example,
received only 0.5% of bank loans as they contributed 20% of GDP.
countries, but even between two countries, including North and South. And we know the importance
This growing phenomenon in recent years. It implies the need to send
the North banks provide this service, efficiently and free.
In the South slightly banked, and
between these countries and those of the North must
organize these transfers. Some transfer
companies provide this service, the best known is
Western Union, present in all the cities of
the world. But other institutions
Specialized do as well as some microfinance institutions,
authorized to do so. They can not do them directly because they are not
connected to a clearing house, but when they have an account in a bank
compensation can be made by it
. All MFIs
do not offer such services. But because these transfers are of a financial nature and
North insured by banks, these services are included in microfinance is
by the migrants and therefore, once again, due to globalization.
It is for all these reasons,
because microfinance promotes the development of
small businesses, because it facilitates social
integration, because it meets certain
needs of migrants, that accompanies the process of globalization. This
national microfinance policy has now its place in national policies
development that reflect primarily the specificity of each country.
Microfinance has its place in development policy. It does not have all
instead. Some realism follows the craze started, when it was thought, a little
fast, they found the way to make microcredit people out of poverty and
countries underdevelopment. We
now know that microfinance is not a panacea
and it does not exclude the need for many other
policies. But it still raises
controversy ... as globalization.
is not foreign to some state decisions, such as
deregulation, but the states are not directly
dominant would rather that globalization tends to reduce their role,
particularly in favor of
multinationals. firms But voices often rise to hope that beyond
regulatory functions it performs naturally, the state retains a regulatory function and
make sure that globalization serves the interests of the greatest number. This is the
so that the States are and should remain involved in globalization.
in microfinance is also much discussed. As it is a
relatively new phenomenon, and as
it comes to offering services in many ways
essential to a large portion of the population, the
state is directly involved and
is a great temptation for him to get into this sector by creating
financing, giving himself credit ... But if he can - or even should - subsidize
. Transfers are also informally or by agencies that are not
always allowed either
by conventional procedures, such as hawala, usually run by merchants (El
sometimes, its role should be limited to a pulse and set the rules to be
Enough state in globalization, not too much state in microfinance. These
controversies are really ideological. Globalization is a good thing for
supporters of the market that does not want to upset her, it is harmful to others
for ways to oppose it. Microfinance in itself does not raise
critics, but some prefer
a commercial approach with profitable institutions
and perennial, others favor a safe approach
with institutions serving
poorest and subsidized whenever necessary. Muhammad Yunus,
Grameen Bank became for many years a profitable institution, does it not stand
at the same time globalization that seems more beneficial to the poor themselves
alternatives that some would prefer it?
Reconciliations we tried to do and the relationships we have
identified do not
prevent globalization and microfinance are two concepts well
different, and they are, in many
ways, completely opposite ...
GERMAN S., microfinance
is no longer a utopia, other Editions, Paris, 2007.
BAUDASSE T. MONTALIEU
and T. The assumption of social capital: an application to the
finance and development Revue
Tiers Monde, No. 190, July-August 2007, pp.1-19.
BAUDRAND V. HENRY and GM Globalization Studyrama,
BOYE S., J. Hajdenberg and POURSAT C., Guide to the Microfinance
- Microfinance and
savings for development, Editions d'Organisation,
Mr. Camdessus, the reduction of poverty in the world: an international duty?
Moral report on the money in the world in 2001, Association for Financial Economics
(AEF), Paris, 2001, p. 97-104.
CLING JP RAZAFINDRAKOTO M. and
F. ROUBAUD (Eds), New Strategies
the fight against international
edition, Economica, Paris, 2003.
DEMBINSKI BONVIN PH and JM Finance: between trust and exclusion Morale Report
the money in the world in 2002, AEF, Paris 2003, p. 389-395.
EL Qorchi M., Hawala: how this informal funds transfer system works,?
and Development, December 2002, p. 31-33.
FROGER G. (Eds.), Globalization
against sustainable development, Presses
European Interuniversity, Brussels, 2006.
. Cf. his acceptance speech after the awarding
of the Nobel Price December 10, 2006.
Gendron C. and G. Bourque, Responsible finance in the era of globalization
Economy, No. 18, April 2003, p. 50-61.
NICE D. and SERVET JM, Between
"localism" and "globalization": Microfinance
as a developer and as a lever
of social and economic changes, Revue Tiers Monde,
No. 172, December
2002, p. 737-760.
GUERIN I., Global Microcredit summit: where are we after five years, review
Third World, No. 172, December 2002, p. 867-871.
M. The conditions for sustainable development, Development and Globalization,
books, No. 310, Documentation French, Paris, October 2002, p. 25-30.
P. Hugon, The revival
of development economics in the context of
globalization, in G. FROGER
(ed.), op. cit., p. 29-52.
IGLESIAS EV, Building
social cohesion through market activities
financial in Latin America and the Caribbean, Report
on Moral money in the world
2001 AEF, Paris, 2001, p. 243-249.
Köhler H., Towards a Better Globalization, Moral Report on money in the world
in 2003-2004, AEF, Paris, 2004, p. 189-199.
Mr. De informal finance to microfinance, Agence Universitaire de la
Francophonie and Editions of Contemporary Archives, Paris, 2006.
Lelart M., father
of microcredit honored by the Nobel Peace ..., Review
Economy, vol. 117, March-April 2007 (a), p. 197-208.
Lelart M. Mutations
in microfinance - The experience of Benin, Laboratory
Economics of Orleans, Search
Workbook 2007 (b) - 15 May 2007.
Mr. LEVY, fight against
poverty, reducing inequality and vulnerability assessment of
action "on the ground",
in G. WINTER (eds.), Inequality and Public Policy in Africa -
standards and sets of actors, Karthala-IRD, Paris, 2001, p. 85-100.
E. Littlefield and
R. Rosenberg, Microfinance and the Poor - The demarcation
between microfinance and financial
sector fades, Finance & Development, June
2004, p. 38-40.
MICHALET CA, What is globalization?, La Découverte, Paris, 2004.
NAUDET JY, Globalization and ethical trade Morale Report on money in the
world in 2002, AEF, Paris, 2003, p. 277-281.
F. Developing countries: Unity and Diversity, Development and
Cahiers, No. 310, Documentation French, Paris, October 2002, p.
NOWAK M. It is ready (not) to the rich - the microcredit revolution, JC Lattes,
SERVET JM, Bankers barefoot - Microfinance, Odile
Jacob, Paris, 2006.
VALASKAKIS K., Glo
Saturday, December 11, 2010
France to support Yunus on social business
4:50 am est
Nobel Laureate, Boutin present report on social dimension of globalisation
Former Housing Minister of France Christine Boutin and Nobel
Laureate Professor Muhammad Yunus presented the interim report on the social dimension of globalisation to French President
Nicolas Sarkozy at an official ceremony at Elysee Palace on Thursday.
They briefed the president on the French action plan on the social front during French
Presidency of G20 summit next year, a release of the Yunus Centre said yesterday.
Christine Boutin presented her
interim report on the social dimension of globalisation to Sarkozy in presence of Professor Muhammad Yunus. The head of state
had commissioned this report to Boutin in December 2009, in the framework of the French presidency of the G20 Summit.
Sarkozy paid tribute to the work of Muhammad Yunus, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006, and the contribution
of the Grameen Bank and microcredit in the fight against poverty.
The president also assured France's support to his work, which aims to develop “social
business”, in the actions of the international community at the service of development.
in Boutin's report are echo back to two pillars of the French presidency: food safety, which will be key on the agenda for
the development of the G20 and corporate social responsibility.
Sarkozy also thanked Boutin for her comprehensive work, and emphasised that the social aspect of globalisation
would be at the heart of the French presidency of the G20.
Sunday, March 7, 2010
yunus entrepreneurial revolution at Grand Rex 4 Feb 2010
8:31 am est
3000 youth questioned Yunus and a worldiwde cast of sustainability leaders including Frank Riboud CEO Danone, Frederick Dalsace
Social Business Chair HEC, the French Minister for Youth & Employement Martin Hirsch - Liberation brought out a special
issue on Yunus sustainability leader of the epoch. The event was led by the extraordinay new media movement DanoneCommunities
who invite youth and job creation social businesses to co-create Generation Solidaire
network co-sponsors included
Verteego (carbon), Tremplin (jobs for the handicapped), l'AFD (Development Agency), Junior Communication Celsa (junior enterprise celsa ad agency), EtreBienAuTravail (all the keys for healthy work), Envie d'Agir (youth projects), Débarquement Jeunes (youth celebrated in nuit de trophees), Youphil, X Microfinance, Wiser earth, Web pedagogique, Tremplin, Solidaires du monde, Skema, SIFE, Rdv des jeunes, ParisTech,
Nos quartiers ont des talents, Net Impact ESSEC, Mozaik RH, Mouvement pour la Terre et l'Humanisme, Lycée Michelet,
Libération, La Ruche, Izi-collect, Internet Sans Frontières, Initiative & Changement, IMS Entreprendre pour
la Cité, Groupe SOS, Green Drinks, Gemalto, France Active, Finansol, ESCP Europe, ESC Grenoble, Entrepreneurs Sans
Frontières, EICD 3A, Dreamshake.com, Dolce Vita, Crédit Coopératif, Coup de Pouce Humanitaire, Comundi,
BNP Paribas, Babyloan, Ashoka, Arpejeh, Apec, African Business Club, ADIVE, ADIE, 8 le film, be-linked, 1001 fontaines, RockCorps.
Friday, March 5, 2010
Please help us catlaogue frane's funders of SB and micro initiatives
1:38 pm est
Grameen Credit Agricole
Micro InitiativesAir Liquide
usa booktour 1 13 january 2008
10:44 am est
booktour2 isexpected to start june 2010- we are prepping resourecs at www.buildingsocialbusiness.com - tell us if you need a stage or a link info @worldcitizen.tv
Creating a World Without Poverty—Interview
with Muhammad Yunus
January 13, 2008 | National Public RadioTF! Editorial Comment: Since winning the Nobel Peace Prize, Muhammad Yunus has garnered even greater media
attention for his pioneering work in microfinance. While many others have now taken up this idea and innovated on the Grameen
approach, Yunus remains an important voice in the effort to eradicate poverty. In the interview below, Yunus shares an inspiring
story of working to create a social business. All Things Considered
, • Muhammad Yunus'
ideas about lending to the poor have changed lives in his native Bangladesh and beyond.
Known as the "banker
to the poor," Yunus, winner of the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize, has helped people rise above poverty by giving them small,
usually unsecured loans through his Grameen Bank.
Now Yunus has written about his next big idea in Creating a World
Without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism. He calls his vision "social business" — a model
where entrepreneurs can apply their creative, social and altruistic vision to the world's most pressing problems, such as
poverty and homelessness.
Through Grameen Bank, Yunus has applied this altruistic business model to his own work.
The bank has set up several companies, including Grameen Telecom — in partnership with the Norwegian phone company Telenor
— and Grameen Danone, a partnership with French food and beverage maker Danone.
The businesses don't depend
on contributions — they aim at self-sufficiency, and expand depending on how much they make. Yunus describes the challenges
and triumphs of creating and maintaining these business models in some of the poorest areas in the world.
Seabrook spoke with Yunus about social business, its impact and challenges.
(Go to the NPR site to listen to the interview
)Excerpt: 'Creating a World Without Poverty'Prologue: Starting With a Handshake
Because the microcredit organization I founded, Grameen Bank, has successfully brought financial services to poor
women in Bangladesh, I am often invited to speak with groups that are interested in improving the lot of women. In October
2005, I was scheduled to attend one such conference in the French resort town of Deauville, ninety miles northwest of Paris.
I would also be visiting Paris to deliver a lecture at HEC, one of the leading business schools in Europe, where they would
honor me with the position of Professor Honoris Causa.
A few days before my trip to France, the coordinator of
my schedule in Paris received a message from the office of Franck Riboud, the chairman and CEO of Groupe Danone, a large French
corporation (whose American brand name is Dannon). The message read: M. Riboud has heard about the work of Professor Yunus
in Bangladesh, and he would like very much like to meet him. Since he will be traveling to Deauville shortly, would it be
possible for him to have lunch with M. Riboud in Paris?
I am always happy to meet with people interested
in my work in general, and in microcredit in particular, especially if they can help in the battle to alleviate and ultimately
eliminate global poverty. The chairman of a major multinational corporation would certainly be worth talking to. But I was
not sure whether the proposed meeting could be accommodated in my already packed schedule. I told my coordinator that if we
could find the time, I would be happy to see M. Riboud.
Don't worry, I was told. The Danone people will make all
the arrangements, take you to lunch, and then make sure you're delivered to the HEC campus in plenty of time. So on October
12, I found myself being whisked from Orly airport
in a limousine provided by the Danone corporation to La Fontaine
Gaillon, a Parisian restaurant recently opened by the actor Gerard Depardieu, where M. Riboud was waiting for me. He'd brought
along seven of his colleagues — important executives in charge of various aspects of Danone's global business: Jean
Laurent, a member of the board of Danone; Philippe-Loic Jacob, general secretary of Groupe Danone; and Jerome Tubiana, facilitator
of Dream Projects in Danone. Also present was Dr. Benedicte Faivre-Tavignot, professor at HEC in charge of their MBA program
in sustainable development.
I was ushered into a private room where I was greeted in a very friendly fashion, served
a fine French meal, and invited to tell the group about our work.
I quickly discovered that Franck Riboud and his
colleagues were well aware of the work of Grameen Bank. They knew we had helped launch the global movement called microcredit,
which helps poor people by offering them small, collateral-free loans—often as little as the equivalent of thirty to
forty U.S. dollars — to use in starting tiny businesses. Access to capital, even on a tiny scale, can have a transforming
effect on human lives. Over time, many of the poor are able to use the small stake that a microloan provides as the basis
for building a thriving business — a tiny farm, a craft workshop, a little store — that can lift them and their
families out of poverty. In fact, in the thirty-one years since I began lending money to poor people — especially women
— millions of families in Bangladesh alone have improved their economic circumstances with the help of microcredit.
I described to M. Riboud and his colleagues how microcredit has spread to many countries, especially in the developing
world, through thousands of microcredit institutions launched by nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and business
entrepreneurs seeking to emulate the success of Grameen. "In fact," I told him, "by the end of next year, we
hope to announce at the Microcredit Global Summit that 100 million poor people around the world have been the beneficiaries
of microcredit — this movement that started from nothing just a few decades ago." (When the summit was held in
Halifax, Nova Scotia, in November 2006, we could say that we had in fact reached that goal. We have now set even more ambitious
targets for the next ten years, including the most important one: To assist 500 million people around the world in escaping
poverty with the help of microcredit.)
Finally, I began to relate how Grameen Bank had expanded its activities
into many new areas, all designed to help the poor. We'd launched special lending programs to help poor people pay for housing
and higher education. We'd created a program to lend money to beggars, which had already helped free thousands from the necessity
to beg and had demonstrated that even the poorest of the poor could be considered "credit-worthy." And we'd developed
a series of businesses — some operated on a profit-making basis, some as nonprofits — that were improving economic
opportunities for the poor in many other ways. They ranged from bringing telephone and Internet communication services into
thousands of remote villages to helping traditional weavers bring their products to market. In these ways, I said, the Grameen
idea was reaching more and more families and communities every year.
Once I had completed my brief history of Grameen's
progress, I paused and invited Franck Riboud to tell me why he had asked me to lunch. "Now it is your turn," I said,
"I've heard of your corporation, but I understand it is not operating in Bangladesh. So tell me something about Groupe
"I am happy to do so," he replied.
Franck told me about the origins of his corporation.
Groupe Danone is one of the world leaders in dairy products; its Danone brand yogurt (known as Dannon in the U.S.) is popular
throughout Europe, North America, and in other countries. Danone is also number two in bottled water and biscuits (cookies
and crackers) in the world. "This Evian water," Franck said, holding up a blue bottle, "is a Danone product."
I'd seen and drunk Evian water in hotels and restaurants around the world. Now I knew a little about the corporation behind
"This is very interesting," I commented, but I was still at a loss to know what high-end mineral
water or yogurt that would be considered luxury products in Bangladesh could have to do with me or Grameen Bank. Franck was
ready with an answer. "Danone is an important source of food in many regions of the world. That includes some of the
developing nations where hunger is a serious problem. We have major businesses in Brazil, in Indonesia, and in China. Recently
we have expanded into India. In fact, more than forty percent of our business is in developing markets.
don't want to sell our products only to the well-off people in those countries. We would like to find ways to help feed the
poor. It is part of our company's historic commitment to being socially innovative and progressive, which dates back thirty-five
years to the work of my father, Antoine Riboud.
"Perhaps this background explains why I asked for this meeting,
Professor Yunus. We thought that a man and an organization that have used creative thinking to help so many of the poor might
have an idea or two for Groupe Danone."
I had no specific idea what Franck Riboud was looking for. But I could
feel he was interested in everything I'd told him so far. Additionally, for some time, I'd been thinking a lot about the role
of business in helping the world's poor. Other economic sectors — the volunteer, charitable, and nongovernmental sectors,
for instance — devote a great deal of time and energy to dealing with poverty and its consequences. But business —
the most financially innovative and efficient sector of all — has no direct mechanism to apply its practices to the
goal of eliminating poverty.
The work of Grameen Bank and its sister companies had helped to bring millions of
people into the local, regional, and world economies, enabling them to participate in markets, earn money, and support themselves
and their families. It seemed to me that there were many opportunities for other kinds of businesses to bring similar benefits
to the poor. So when, over lunch in a fine Paris restaurant, one such opportunity seemed to be presenting itself, I decided
to seize it if I could.
It was a spur-of-the-moment impulse, not the kind of carefully planned business proposal
that most executives prefer. But over the years, I've found that some of my best projects have been started, not on the basis
of rigorous prior analysis and planning, but simply from an impulse that says, "Here is a chance to do something good."
I made a suggestion to Franck and his colleagues: "As you know, the people of Bangladesh are some of the poorest
in the world. Malnutrition is a terrible problem, especially among children. It leads to awful health consequences as the
children grow up.
"Your company is a leading producer of nutritious foods. What would you think about creating
a joint venture to bring some of your products to the villages of Bangladesh? We could create a company that we own together
and call it Grameen Danone. It could manufacture healthful foods that will improve the diet of rural Bangladeshis —
especially the children. If the products were sold at a low price, we could make a real difference in the lives of millions
I was about to learn that Franck Riboud, CEO of one of the world's best-known companies, could
be just as impulsive as a "banker to the poor" from Bangladesh. He rose from his chair at the opposite side of the
table from me, reached toward me, and extended his hand. "Let's do it," he said, and we shook hands.
was as elated as I was incredulous. "Can this really be happening so quickly?" I wondered. "What have we agreed
to do here? Perhaps he doesn't understand my Bangladeshi accent." We sat back down, and I decided I'd better make sure
that Franck knew what he was getting himself — and his company — into.
"Maybe I haven't been quite
clear," I said gently. "I am proposing a new company, a joint venture between your company and Grameen. I am calling
it Grameen Danone, with our name, Grameen, to come first, since it is better known in Bangladesh than yours."
Franck nodded. "No, I got it!" he assured me. "Your plan is quite clear to me. I shook hands with you because
you told me that, in Grameen Bank, you rely on mutual trust between the bank and the borrowers, making loans on the basis
of a handshake rather than legal papers. So I am following your system. We shook hands, and as far as I am concerned, the
deal is final."
I was pleased and excited by Franck's response. Then I told him something else. "I am
not done with my proposal yet. Our joint venture will be a social business."
This time he looked a bit puzzled,
as though he had heard a phrase that he could not immediately translate. "A social business? What is that?"
"It's a business designed to meet a social goal. In this case, the goal is to improve the nutrition of poor families
in the villages of Bangladesh. A social business is a business that pays no dividends. It sells products at prices that make
it self-sustaining. The owners of the company can get back the amount they've invested in the company over a period of time,
but no profit is paid to investors in the form of dividends. Instead, any profit made stays in the business — to finance
expansion, to create new products or services, and to do more good for the world.
"This is an idea of my own
— something I've been thinking about for a long time. I believe that many kinds of enterprises can be created as social
businesses in order to serve the poor. I've been looking for a chance to put the idea into practice. We've already made a
beginning in Bangladesh, setting up eye-care hospitals as social businesses. But Grameen Danone will be a powerful new example
of the idea — that is, if you agree."
Franck smiled. "This is extremely interesting," he said.
He stood up again, extended his hand toward me across the table. I stood up and reached for his hand. As we shook hands, he
said, "Let's do it."
I was so stunned, even more convinced that my ears were deceiving me, that, a couple
of hours later, on the road to the HEC campus, I quickly sent Franck an email. In it, I summarized my understanding of our
discussion and asked him to confirm, clarify, or correct my impressions. If he was seriously pledging himself to create the
world's first multinational social business as a partnership between Grameen and Danone, I wanted to make sure he understood
what was involved. And if there had been some confusion between us — or if he had simply had second thoughts, or been
dissuaded by his colleagues — I wanted to give him an opportunity to say "no" quickly and easily, with no
But Franck and his team at Danone were fully committed to the project. While I was at HEC, I received
a call from Emmanuel Faber, the chief of Danone's operation in Asia. Franck had mentioned Emmanuel during our meeting, explaining
that he would be the logical person to direct Danone's end of our joint project. Now Emmanuel called from his Shanghai office.
"Professor Yunus," he told me, "I am thrilled that a concrete idea has emerged from your lunch. I'm looking
forward to meeting you and talking about the project. Meanwhile, please send me your initial thoughts about it." I promised
Not only were Franck Riboud and Danone committed to the project, they wanted to move ahead at a rapid
pace to make our new business into a reality. I discovered this during the whirlwind of the next several months, as Groupe
Danone and Grameen worked together to create something new under the sun: the world's very first consciously designed multinational
Listen to the interview on the NPR site.
Internet Source: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18008873&ft=1&f=2
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